openssl(1) - NetBSD Manual Pages

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OPENSSL(1)                          OpenSSL                         OPENSSL(1)

openssl - OpenSSL command line program
openssl command [ options ... ] [ parameters ... ] openssl no-XXX [ options ]
OpenSSL is a cryptography toolkit implementing the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL v2/v3) and Transport Layer Security (TLS v1) network protocols and related cryptography standards required by them. The openssl program is a command line program for using the various cryptography functions of OpenSSL's crypto library from the shell. It can be used for o Creation and management of private keys, public keys and parameters o Public key cryptographic operations o Creation of X.509 certificates, CSRs and CRLs o Calculation of Message Digests and Message Authentication Codes o Encryption and Decryption with Ciphers o SSL/TLS Client and Server Tests o Handling of S/MIME signed or encrypted mail o Timestamp requests, generation and verification
The openssl program provides a rich variety of commands (command in the "SYNOPSIS" above). Each command can have many options and argument parameters, shown above as options and parameters. Detailed documentation and use cases for most standard subcommands are available (e.g., openssl-x509(1)). The subcommand openssl-list(1) may be used to list subcommands. The command no-XXX tests whether a command of the specified name is available. If no command named XXX exists, it returns 0 (success) and prints no-XXX; otherwise it returns 1 and prints XXX. In both cases, the output goes to stdout and nothing is printed to stderr. Additional command line arguments are always ignored. Since for each cipher there is a command of the same name, this provides an easy way for shell scripts to test for the availability of ciphers in the openssl program. (no-XXX is not able to detect pseudo-commands such as quit, list, or no-XXX itself.) Configuration Option Many commands use an external configuration file for some or all of their arguments and have a -config option to specify that file. The default name of the file is openssl.cnf in the default certificate storage area, which can be determined from the openssl-version(1) command using the -d or -a option. The environment variable OPENSSL_CONF can be used to specify a different file location or to disable loading a configuration (using the empty string). Among others, the configuration file can be used to load modules and to specify parameters for generating certificates and random numbers. See config(5) for details. Standard Commands asn1parse Parse an ASN.1 sequence. ca Certificate Authority (CA) Management. ciphers Cipher Suite Description Determination. cms CMS (Cryptographic Message Syntax) command. crl Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Management. crl2pkcs7 CRL to PKCS#7 Conversion. dgst Message Digest calculation. MAC calculations are superseded by openssl-mac(1). dhparam Generation and Management of Diffie-Hellman Parameters. Superseded by openssl-genpkey(1) and openssl-pkeyparam(1). dsa DSA Data Management. dsaparam DSA Parameter Generation and Management. Superseded by openssl-genpkey(1) and openssl-pkeyparam(1). ec EC (Elliptic curve) key processing. ecparam EC parameter manipulation and generation. enc Encryption, decryption, and encoding. engine Engine (loadable module) information and manipulation. errstr Error Number to Error String Conversion. fipsinstall FIPS configuration installation. gendsa Generation of DSA Private Key from Parameters. Superseded by openssl-genpkey(1) and openssl-pkey(1). genpkey Generation of Private Key or Parameters. genrsa Generation of RSA Private Key. Superseded by openssl-genpkey(1). help Display information about a command's options. info Display diverse information built into the OpenSSL libraries. kdf Key Derivation Functions. list List algorithms and features. mac Message Authentication Code Calculation. nseq Create or examine a Netscape certificate sequence. ocsp Online Certificate Status Protocol command. passwd Generation of hashed passwords. pkcs12 PKCS#12 Data Management. pkcs7 PKCS#7 Data Management. pkcs8 PKCS#8 format private key conversion command. pkey Public and private key management. pkeyparam Public key algorithm parameter management. pkeyutl Public key algorithm cryptographic operation command. prime Compute prime numbers. rand Generate pseudo-random bytes. rehash Create symbolic links to certificate and CRL files named by the hash values. req PKCS#10 X.509 Certificate Signing Request (CSR) Management. rsa RSA key management. rsautl RSA command for signing, verification, encryption, and decryption. Superseded by openssl-pkeyutl(1). s_client This implements a generic SSL/TLS client which can establish a transparent connection to a remote server speaking SSL/TLS. It's intended for testing purposes only and provides only rudimentary interface functionality but internally uses mostly all functionality of the OpenSSL ssl library. s_server This implements a generic SSL/TLS server which accepts connections from remote clients speaking SSL/TLS. It's intended for testing purposes only and provides only rudimentary interface functionality but internally uses mostly all functionality of the OpenSSL ssl library. It provides both an own command line oriented protocol for testing SSL functions and a simple HTTP response facility to emulate an SSL/TLS-aware webserver. s_time SSL Connection Timer. sess_id SSL Session Data Management. smime S/MIME mail processing. speed Algorithm Speed Measurement. spkac SPKAC printing and generating command. srp Maintain SRP password file. This command is deprecated. storeutl Command to list and display certificates, keys, CRLs, etc. ts Time Stamping Authority command. verify X.509 Certificate Verification. See also the openssl-verification-options(1) manual page. version OpenSSL Version Information. x509 X.509 Certificate Data Management. Message Digest Commands blake2b512 BLAKE2b-512 Digest blake2s256 BLAKE2s-256 Digest md2 MD2 Digest md4 MD4 Digest md5 MD5 Digest mdc2 MDC2 Digest rmd160 RMD-160 Digest sha1 SHA-1 Digest sha224 SHA-2 224 Digest sha256 SHA-2 256 Digest sha384 SHA-2 384 Digest sha512 SHA-2 512 Digest sha3-224 SHA-3 224 Digest sha3-256 SHA-3 256 Digest sha3-384 SHA-3 384 Digest sha3-512 SHA-3 512 Digest shake128 SHA-3 SHAKE128 Digest shake256 SHA-3 SHAKE256 Digest sm3 SM3 Digest Encryption, Decryption, and Encoding Commands The following aliases provide convenient access to the most used encodings and ciphers. Depending on how OpenSSL was configured and built, not all ciphers listed here may be present. See openssl-enc(1) for more information. aes128, aes-128-cbc, aes-128-cfb, aes-128-ctr, aes-128-ecb, aes-128-ofb AES-128 Cipher aes192, aes-192-cbc, aes-192-cfb, aes-192-ctr, aes-192-ecb, aes-192-ofb AES-192 Cipher aes256, aes-256-cbc, aes-256-cfb, aes-256-ctr, aes-256-ecb, aes-256-ofb AES-256 Cipher aria128, aria-128-cbc, aria-128-cfb, aria-128-ctr, aria-128-ecb, aria-128-ofb Aria-128 Cipher aria192, aria-192-cbc, aria-192-cfb, aria-192-ctr, aria-192-ecb, aria-192-ofb Aria-192 Cipher aria256, aria-256-cbc, aria-256-cfb, aria-256-ctr, aria-256-ecb, aria-256-ofb Aria-256 Cipher base64 Base64 Encoding bf, bf-cbc, bf-cfb, bf-ecb, bf-ofb Blowfish Cipher camellia128, camellia-128-cbc, camellia-128-cfb, camellia-128-ctr, camellia-128-ecb, camellia-128-ofb Camellia-128 Cipher camellia192, camellia-192-cbc, camellia-192-cfb, camellia-192-ctr, camellia-192-ecb, camellia-192-ofb Camellia-192 Cipher camellia256, camellia-256-cbc, camellia-256-cfb, camellia-256-ctr, camellia-256-ecb, camellia-256-ofb Camellia-256 Cipher cast, cast-cbc CAST Cipher cast5-cbc, cast5-cfb, cast5-ecb, cast5-ofb CAST5 Cipher chacha20 Chacha20 Cipher des, des-cbc, des-cfb, des-ecb, des-ede, des-ede-cbc, des-ede-cfb, des- ede-ofb, des-ofb DES Cipher des3, desx, des-ede3, des-ede3-cbc, des-ede3-cfb, des-ede3-ofb Triple-DES Cipher idea, idea-cbc, idea-cfb, idea-ecb, idea-ofb IDEA Cipher rc2, rc2-cbc, rc2-cfb, rc2-ecb, rc2-ofb RC2 Cipher rc4 RC4 Cipher rc5, rc5-cbc, rc5-cfb, rc5-ecb, rc5-ofb RC5 Cipher seed, seed-cbc, seed-cfb, seed-ecb, seed-ofb SEED Cipher sm4, sm4-cbc, sm4-cfb, sm4-ctr, sm4-ecb, sm4-ofb SM4 Cipher
Details of which options are available depend on the specific command. This section describes some common options with common behavior. Common Options -help Provides a terse summary of all options. If an option takes an argument, the "type" of argument is also given. -- This terminates the list of options. It is mostly useful if any filename parameters start with a minus sign: openssl verify [flags...] -- -cert1.pem... Format Options See openssl-format-options(1) for manual page. Pass Phrase Options See the openssl-passphrase-options(1) manual page. Random State Options Prior to OpenSSL 1.1.1, it was common for applications to store information about the state of the random-number generator in a file that was loaded at startup and rewritten upon exit. On modern operating systems, this is generally no longer necessary as OpenSSL will seed itself from a trusted entropy source provided by the operating system. These flags are still supported for special platforms or circumstances that might require them. It is generally an error to use the same seed file more than once and every use of -rand should be paired with -writerand. -rand files A file or files containing random data used to seed the random number generator. Multiple files can be specified separated by an OS-dependent character. The separator is ";" for MS-Windows, "," for OpenVMS, and ":" for all others. Another way to specify multiple files is to repeat this flag with different filenames. -writerand file Writes the seed data to the specified file upon exit. This file can be used in a subsequent command invocation. Certificate Verification Options See the openssl-verification-options(1) manual page. Name Format Options See the openssl-namedisplay-options(1) manual page. TLS Version Options Several commands use SSL, TLS, or DTLS. By default, the commands use TLS and clients will offer the lowest and highest protocol version they support, and servers will pick the highest version that the client offers that is also supported by the server. The options below can be used to limit which protocol versions are used, and whether TCP (SSL and TLS) or UDP (DTLS) is used. Note that not all protocols and flags may be available, depending on how OpenSSL was built. -ssl3, -tls1, -tls1_1, -tls1_2, -tls1_3, -no_ssl3, -no_tls1, -no_tls1_1, -no_tls1_2, -no_tls1_3 These options require or disable the use of the specified SSL or TLS protocols. When a specific TLS version is required, only that version will be offered or accepted. Only one specific protocol can be given and it cannot be combined with any of the no_ options. The no_* options do not work with s_time and ciphers commands but work with s_client and s_server commands. -dtls, -dtls1, -dtls1_2 These options specify to use DTLS instead of TLS. With -dtls, clients will negotiate any supported DTLS protocol version. Use the -dtls1 or -dtls1_2 options to support only DTLS1.0 or DTLS1.2, respectively. Engine Options -engine id Load the engine identified by id and use all the methods it implements (algorithms, key storage, etc.), unless specified otherwise in the command-specific documentation or it is configured to do so, as described in "Engine Configuration" in config(5). The engine will be used for key ids specified with -key and similar options when an option like -keyform engine is given. A special case is the "loader_attic" engine, which is meant just for internal OpenSSL testing purposes and supports loading keys, parameters, certificates, and CRLs from files. When this engine is used, files with such credentials are read via this engine. Using the "file:" schema is optional; a plain file (path) name will do. Options specifying keys, like -key and similar, can use the generic OpenSSL engine key loading URI scheme "org.openssl.engine:" to retrieve private keys and public keys. The URI syntax is as follows, in simplified form: org.openssl.engine:{engineid}:{keyid} Where "{engineid}" is the identity/name of the engine, and "{keyid}" is a key identifier that's acceptable by that engine. For example, when using an engine that interfaces against a PKCS#11 implementation, the generic key URI would be something like this (this happens to be an example for the PKCS#11 engine that's part of OpenSC): -key org.openssl.engine:pkcs11:label_some-private-key As a third possibility, for engines and providers that have implemented their own OSSL_STORE_LOADER(3), "org.openssl.engine:" should not be necessary. For a PKCS#11 implementation that has implemented such a loader, the PKCS#11 URI as defined in RFC 7512 should be possible to use directly: -key pkcs11:object=some-private-key;pin-value=1234 Provider Options -provider name Load and initialize the provider identified by name. The name can be also a path to the provider module. In that case the provider name will be the specified path and not just the provider module name. Interpretation of relative paths is platform specific. The configured "MODULESDIR" path, OPENSSL_MODULES environment variable, or the path specified by -provider-path is prepended to relative paths. See provider(7) for a more detailed description. -provider-path path Specifies the search path that is to be used for looking for providers. Equivalently, the OPENSSL_MODULES environment variable may be set. -propquery propq Specifies the property query clause to be used when fetching algorithms from the loaded providers. See property(7) for a more detailed description.
The OpenSSL library can be take some configuration parameters from the environment. Some of these variables are listed below. For information about specific commands, see openssl-engine(1), openssl-rehash(1), and tsget(1). For information about the use of environment variables in configuration, see "ENVIRONMENT" in config(5). For information about querying or specifying CPU architecture flags, see OPENSSL_ia32cap(3), and OPENSSL_s390xcap(3). For information about all environment variables used by the OpenSSL libraries, see openssl-env(7). OPENSSL_TRACE=name[,...] Enable tracing output of OpenSSL library, by name. This output will only make sense if you know OpenSSL internals well. Also, it might not give you any output at all, depending on how OpenSSL was built. The value is a comma separated list of names, with the following available: TRACE Traces the OpenSSL trace API itself. INIT Traces OpenSSL library initialization and cleanup. TLS Traces the TLS/SSL protocol. TLS_CIPHER Traces the ciphers used by the TLS/SSL protocol. CONF Show details about provider and engine configuration. ENGINE_TABLE The function that is used by RSA, DSA (etc) code to select registered ENGINEs, cache defaults and functional references (etc), will generate debugging summaries. ENGINE_REF_COUNT Reference counts in the ENGINE structure will be monitored with a line of generated for each change. PKCS5V2 Traces PKCS#5 v2 key generation. PKCS12_KEYGEN Traces PKCS#12 key generation. PKCS12_DECRYPT Traces PKCS#12 decryption. X509V3_POLICY Generates the complete policy tree at various points during X.509 v3 policy evaluation. BN_CTX Traces BIGNUM context operations. CMP Traces CMP client and server activity. STORE Traces STORE operations. DECODER Traces decoder operations. ENCODER Traces encoder operations. REF_COUNT Traces decrementing certain ASN.1 structure references.
openssl-asn1parse(1), openssl-ca(1), openssl-ciphers(1), openssl-cms(1), openssl-crl(1), openssl-crl2pkcs7(1), openssl-dgst(1), openssl-dhparam(1), openssl-dsa(1), openssl-dsaparam(1), openssl-ec(1), openssl-ecparam(1), openssl-enc(1), openssl-engine(1), openssl-errstr(1), openssl-gendsa(1), openssl-genpkey(1), openssl-genrsa(1), openssl-kdf(1), openssl-list(1), openssl-mac(1), openssl-nseq(1), openssl-ocsp(1), openssl-passwd(1), openssl-pkcs12(1), openssl-pkcs7(1), openssl-pkcs8(1), openssl-pkey(1), openssl-pkeyparam(1), openssl-pkeyutl(1), openssl-prime(1), openssl-rand(1), openssl-rehash(1), openssl-req(1), openssl-rsa(1), openssl-rsautl(1), openssl-s_client(1), openssl-s_server(1), openssl-s_time(1), openssl-sess_id(1), openssl-smime(1), openssl-speed(1), openssl-spkac(1), openssl-srp(1), openssl-storeutl(1), openssl-ts(1), openssl-verify(1), openssl-version(1), openssl-x509(1), config(5), crypto(7), openssl-env(7). ssl(7), x509v3_config(5)
The list -XXX-algorithms options were added in OpenSSL 1.0.0; For notes on the availability of other commands, see their individual manual pages. The -issuer_checks option is deprecated as of OpenSSL 1.1.0 and is silently ignored. The -xcertform and -xkeyform options are obsolete since OpenSSL 3.0 and have no effect. The interactive mode, which could be invoked by running "openssl" with no further arguments, was removed in OpenSSL 3.0, and running that program with no arguments is now equivalent to "openssl help".
Copyright 2000-2023 The OpenSSL Project Authors. All Rights Reserved. Licensed under the Apache License 2.0 (the "License"). You may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You can obtain a copy in the file LICENSE in the source distribution or at <>. 3.0.14 2024-06-04 OPENSSL(1)
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