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DHCPCD(8) System Manager's Manual DHCPCD(8)
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dhcpcd -- an RFC 2131 compliant DHCP client
dhcpcd [-bdknpqABDEGKLTV] [-c, --script script] [-f, --config file]
[-h, --hostname hostname] [-i, --vendorclassid vendorclassid]
[-l, --leasetime seconds] [-m, --metric metric]
[-o, --option option] [-r, --request address]
[-s, --inform address[/cidr]] [-t, --timeout seconds]
[-u, --userclass class] [-v, --vendor code, value]
[-C, --nohook hook] [-F, --fqdn FQDN] [-I, --clientid clientid]
[-O, --nooption option] [-Q, --require option]
[-X, --blacklist address] interface
dhcpcd -k, --release interface
dhcpcd -x, --exit interface
dhcpcd is an implementation of the DHCP client specified in RFC 2131.
dhcpcd gets the host information (IP address, routes, etc) from a DHCP
server and configures the network interface of the machine on which it is
running. dhcpcd then runs the configuration script which writes DNS
information to resolvconf(8), if available, otherwise directly to
/etc/resolv.conf. If the hostname is currenly blank, (null) or localhost
then dhcpcd sets the hostname to the one supplied by the DHCP server.
dhcpcd then daemonises and waits for the lease renewal time to lapse.
Then it attempts to renew its lease and reconfigure if the new lease
Local Link configuration
If dhcpcd failed to obtain a lease, it probes for a valid IPv4LL address
(aka ZeroConf, aka APIPA). Once obtained it restarts the process of
looking for a DHCP server to get a proper address.
When using IPv4LL, dhcpcd nearly always succeeds and returns an exit code
of 0. In the rare case it fails, it normally means that there is a
reverse ARP proxy installed which always defeats IPv4LL probing. To dis-
able this behaviour, you can use the -L, --noipv4ll option.
Hooking into DHCP events
dhcpcd runs /libexec/dhcpcd-run-hooks, or the script specified by the -c,
--script option. This script runs each script found in
/libexec/dhcpcd-hooks in a lexical order. The default installation sup-
plies the scripts 01-test, 10-mtu, 20-resolv.conf and 30-hostname. You
can disable each script by using the -C, --nohook option. See
dhcpcd-run-hooks(8) for details on how these scripts work. dhcpcd cur-
rently ignores the exit code of the script.
You can fine tune the behaviour of dhcpcd with the following options:
Background immediately. This is useful for startup scripts which
don't disable link messages for carrier status.
-c, --script script
Use this script instead of the default /libexec/dhcpcd-run-hooks.
Echo debug and informational messages to the console. Subsequent
debug options stop dhcpcd from daemonising.
-f, --config file
Specify a config to load instead of /etc/dhcpcd.conf. dhcpcd
always processes the config file before any command line options.
-h, --hostname hostname
By default, dhcpcd sends the current hostname to the DHCP server
so it can register in DNS. You can use this option to specify
the hostname sent, or an empty string to stop any hostname from
-i, --vendorclassid vendorclassid
Override the vendorclassid field sent. The default is dhcpcd
<version>. If not set then none is sent.
This causes an existing dhcpcd process running on the interface
to release its lease, deconfigure the interface and then exit.
dhcpcd then waits until this process has exited.
-l, --leasetime seconds
Request a specific lease time in seconds. By default dhcpcd does
not request any lease time and leaves the it in the hands of the
-m, --metric metric
Added routes will use the metric on systems where this is sup-
ported (presently only Linux). Route metrics allow the addition
of routes to the same destination across different interfaces,
the lower the metric the more it is preferred.
-o, --option option
Request the DHCP option variable for use in
Notifies an existing dhcpcd process running on the interface to
rebind it's lease. dhcpcd will not re-configure itself or use
any other command line arguments. dhcpcd will timeout the rebind
after 30 seconds at which point the lease will be expired and
dhcpcd will enter the discovery state to obtain a new lease. Use
the -t, --timeout option to change this. If dhcpcd is not run-
ning, then it starts up as normal. This option used to be renew,
but rebind is more accurate as we need to broadcast the request
instead of unicasting.
dhcpcd normally deconfigures the interface and configuration when
it exits. Sometimes, this isn't desirable if for example you
have root mounted over NFS. You can use this option to stop this
-r, --request [address]
dhcpcd normally sends a DHCP DISCOVER to find servers to offer an
address. dhcpcd then requests the address used. You can use
this option to skip the BROADCAST step and just request the
address. The downside is if you request an address the DHCP
server does not know about or the DHCP server is not authorative,
it will remain silent. In this situation, we go back to the init
state and DISCOVER again. If no address is given then the first
address currently assigned to the interface is used.
-s, --inform [address[/cidr]]
Behaves like -r, --request as above, but sends a DHCP INFORM
instead of a REQUEST. This does not get a lease as such, just
notifies the DHCP server of the address in use. You should also
include the optional cidr network number in-case the address is
not already configured on the interface. dhcpcd remains running
and pretends it has an infinite lease. dhcpcd will not de-con-
figure the interface when it exits. If dhcpcd fails to contact a
DHCP server then it returns a failure instead of falling back on
-t, --timeout seconds
Timeout after seconds, instead of the default 30. A setting of 0
seconds causes dhcpcd to wait forever to get a lease.
-u, --userclass class
Tags the DHCP message with the userclass class. DHCP servers use
this give members of the class DHCP options other than the
default, without having to know things like hardware address or
-v, --vendor code,value
Add an enscapulated vendor option. code should be between 1 and
254 inclusive. Examples.
Set the vendor option 01 with an IP address.
dhcpcd -v 01,192.168.0.2 eth0
Set the vendor option 02 with a hex code.
dhcpcd -v 02,01:02:03:04:05 eth0
Do the above and set a third option with a string and not an IP
dhcpcd -v 01,192.168.0.2 -v 02,01:02:03:04:05 -v
This will signal an existing dhcpcd process running on the
interface to deconfigure the interface and exit. dhcpcd then
waits until this process has exited.
Generate an RFC 4361 compliant clientid. This requires persis-
tent storage and not all DHCP servers work with it so it's not
enabled by default. dhcpcd generates the DUID and stores in it
/etc/dhcpcd.duid This file should not be copied to other hosts.
If dhcpcd cannot obtain a lease, then try to use the last lease
acquired for the interface. If the -p, --persistent option is
not given then the lease is used if it hasn't expired.
-F, --fqdn fqdn
Requests that the DHCP server updates DNS using FQDN instead of
just a hostname. Valid values for fqdn are disable, none, ptr
and both. The current hostname or the hostname specified using
the -h, --hostname option must be a FQDN. dhcpcd itself never
does any DNS updates. dhcpcd encodes the FQDN hostname as speci-
fied in RFC1035.
-I, --clientid clientid
Send the clientid. If the string is of the format 01:02:03 then
it is encoded as hex. For interfaces whose hardware address is
longer than 8 bytes, or if the clientid is an empty string then
dhcpcd sends a default clientid of the hardware family and the
dhcpcd will try to do as much as it can by default. However, there are
sometimes situations where you don't want the things to be configured
exactly how the the DHCP server wants. Here are some options that deal
with turning these bits off.
Quiet dhcpcd on the command line, only warnings and errors will
be displayed. The messages are still logged though.
Don't request or claim the address by ARP. This also disables
Don't run in the background when we acquire a lease. This is
mainly useful for running under the control of another process,
such as a debugger or a network manager.
-C, --nohook script
Don't run this hook script. Matches full name, or prefixed with
2 numbers optionally ending with .sh.
So to stop dhcpcd from touching your DNS or MTU settings you
dhcpcd -C resolv.conf -C mtu eth0
Don't set any default routes.
Don't receive link messages for carrier status. You should only
have to use this with buggy device drivers or running dhcpcd
through a network manager.
Don't use IPv4LL (aka APIPA, aka Bonjour, aka ZeroConf).
-O, --nooption option
Don't request the specified option. If no option given, then
don't request any options other than those to configure the
interface and routing.
-Q, --require option
Requires the option to be present in all DHCP messages, otherwise
the message is ignored.
On receipt of OFFER messages just call /libexec/dhcpcd-run-hooks
with the reason of TEST which echo's the DHCP variables found in
the message to the console. The interface configuration isn't
touched and neither are any configuration files.
Display a list of option codes and the associated variable for
use in dhcpcd-run-hooks(8).
-X, --blacklist address
Ignores all DHCP messages which have this address as the server
ID. This may be expanded in future releases to ignore all pack-
ets matching either the IP or hardware address.
dhcpcd requires a Berkley Packet Filter, or BPF device on BSD based sys-
tems and a Linux Socket Filter, or LPF device on Linux based systems.
Configuration file for dhcpcd. If you always use the same options, put
Text file that holds the DUID used to identify the host.
Bourne shell script that is run to configure or deconfigure an interface.
A directory containing bourne shell scripts that are run by the above
script. Each script can be disabled by using the -C, --nohook option
The actual DHCP message send by the server. We use this when reading the
last lease and use the files mtime as when it was issued.
Stores the PID of dhcpcd running on the interface.
dhcpcd.conf(5), dhcpcd-run-hooks(8), resolv.conf(5), resolvconf(8),
RFC 2131, RFC 2132, RFC 2855, RFC 3004, RFC 3361, RFC 3396, RFC 3397, RFC
3442, RFC 3927, RFC 4361, RFC 4390, RFC 4702.
Roy Marples <email@example.com>
Please report them to http://roy.marples.name/projects/dhcpcd
NetBSD 5.0 November 18, 2008 NetBSD 5.0