CMSG_DATA(3) - NetBSD Manual Pages

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CMSG_DATA(3)            NetBSD Library Functions Manual           CMSG_DATA(3)


NAME
CMSG_DATA, CMSG_FIRSTHDR, CMSG_LEN, CMSG_NXTHDR, CMSG_SPACE -- socket control message routines
SYNOPSIS
#include <sys/socket.h> unsigned char * CMSG_DATA(struct cmsghdr *); const unsigned char * CCMSG_DATA(struct cmsghdr *); struct cmsghdr * CMSG_FIRSTHDR(struct msghdr *); size_t CMSG_LEN(size_t); struct cmsghdr * CMSG_NXTHDR(struct msghdr *, struct cmsghdr *); size_t CMSG_SPACE(size_t);
DESCRIPTION
The control message API is used to construct ancillary data objects for use in control messages sent and received across sockets. Control messages are passed around by the recvmsg(2) and sendmsg(2) sys- tem calls. The cmsghdr structure, described in recvmsg(2), is used to specify a chain of control messages. These routines should be used instead of directly accessing the control message header members and data buffers as they ensure that necessary alignment constraints are met. The following routines are provided: CMSG_DATA(cmsg) This routine accesses the data portion of the control message header cmsg. It ensures proper alignment constraints on the beginning of ancillary data are met. CMSG_FIRSTHDR(mhdr) This routine accesses the first control message attached to the message msg. If no control messages are attached to the message, this routine returns NULL. CMSG_LEN(len) This routine determines the size in bytes of a control message, which includes the control message header. len specifies the length of the data held by the control message. This value is what is normally stored in the cmsg_len of each control message. This routine accounts for any alignment constraints on the begin- ning of ancillary data. This macro might not evaluate to a com- pile-time constant. CMSG_NXTHDR(mhdr, cmsg) This routine returns the location of the control message follow- ing cmsg in the message mhdr. If cmsg is the last control mes- sage in the chain, this routine returns NULL. CMSG_SPACE(len) This routine determines the size in bytes needed to hold a con- trol message and its contents of length len, which includes the control message header. This value is what is normally stored in msg_msgcontrollen. This routine accounts for any alignment con- straints on the beginning of ancillary data as well as any needed to pad the next control message. This macro might not evaluate to a compile-time constant.
EXAMPLES
The following example constructs a control message containing a file descriptor and passes it over a socket: struct msghdr msg; struct cmsghdr *cmsg; /* We use a union to make sure hdr is aligned */ union { struct cmsghdr hdr; unsigned char buf[CMSG_SPACE(sizeof(int))]; } *cmsgbuf; /* * We allocate in the heap instead of the stack to avoid C99 * variable stack allocation, which breaks gcc -fstack-protector. */ if ((cmsgbuf = malloc(sizeof(*cmsgbuf))) == NULL) err(1, "malloc"); (void)memset(&msg, 0, sizeof(msg)); msg.msg_control = cmsgbuf->buf; msg.msg_controllen = sizeof(cmsgbuf->buf); cmsg = CMSG_FIRSTHDR(&msg); cmsg->cmsg_len = CMSG_LEN(sizeof(int)); cmsg->cmsg_level = SOL_SOCKET; cmsg->cmsg_type = SCM_RIGHTS; *(int *)CMSG_DATA(cmsg) = fd; if (sendmsg(s, &msg, 0) == -1) err(1, "sendmsg"); free(cmsgbuf); And an example that receives and decomposes the control message: struct msghdr msg; struct cmsghdr *cmsg; union { struct cmsghdr hdr; unsigned char buf[CMSG_SPACE(sizeof(int))]; } *cmsgbuf; if ((cmsgbuf = malloc(sizeof(*cmsgbuf))) == NULL) err(1, "malloc"); (void)memset(&msg, 0, sizeof(msg)); msg.msg_control = cmsgbuf->buf; msg.msg_controllen = sizeof(cmsgbuf->buf); if (recvmsg(s, &msg, 0) == -1) err(1, "recvmsg"); if ((msg.msg_flags & (MSG_TRUNC|MSG_CTRUNC)) errx(1, "control message truncated"); for (cmsg = CMSG_FIRSTHDR(&msg); cmsg != NULL; cmsg = CMSG_NXTHDR(&msg, cmsg)) { if (cmsg->cmsg_len == CMSG_LEN(sizeof(int)) && cmsg->cmsg_level == SOL_SOCKET && cmsg->cmsg_type == SCM_RIGHTS) { fd = *(int *)CMSG_DATA(cmsg); /* Do something with the descriptor. */ } } free(cmsgbuf);
SEE ALSO
recvmsg(2), sendmsg(2), socket(2)
HISTORY
The control message API first appeared in 4.2BSD. NetBSD 8.0 January 24, 2015 NetBSD 8.0
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