man(7) - NetBSD Manual Pages

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GROFF_MAN(7)                                                      GROFF_MAN(7)




NAME
groff_man - groff `man' macros to support generation of man pages
SYNOPSIS
groff -man [ options... ] [ files... ] groff -m man [ options... ] [ files... ]
DESCRIPTION
The man macros used to generate man pages with groff were written by James Clark. This document provides a brief summary of the use of each macro in that package.
OPTIONS
The man macros understand the following command line options (which define various registers). -rcR=1 This option (the default if in nroff mode) will create a single, very long page instead of multiple pages. Say -rcR=0 to disable it. -rC1 If more than one manual page is given on the command line, num- ber the pages continuously, rather than starting each at 1. -rD1 Double-sided printing. Footers for even and odd pages are for- matted differently. -rFT=dist Set distance of the footer relative to the bottom of the page if negative or relative to the top if positive. The default is -0.5i. -rHY=flags Set hyphenation flags. Possible values are 1 to hyphenate with- out restrictions, 2 to not hyphenate the last word on a page, 4 to not hyphenate the last two characters of a word, and 8 to not hyphenate the first two characters of a word. These values are additive; the default is 14. -rIN=width Set body text indentation to width. The default is 7n for nroff, 7.2n for troff. For nroff, this value should always be an integer multiple of unit `n' to get consistent indentation. -rLL=line-length Set line length. If this option is not given, the line length is set to respect any value set by a prior `.ll' request, (which must be in effect when the `.TH' macro is invoked), if this dif- fers from the built-in default for the formatter; otherwise it defaults to 78n in nroff mode and 6.5i in troff mode. Note that the use of a `.ll' request to initialize the line length is supported for backward compatibility with some ver- sions of the man program; direct initialization of the `LL' reg- ister should always be preferred to the use of such a request. In particular, note that a `.ll 65n' request will not preserve the normal nroff default line length, (the man default initial- ization to 78n will prevail), whereas, the `-rLL=65n' option, or an equivalent `.nr LL 65n' request preceding the use of the `TH' macro, will set a line length of 65n. -rLT=title-length Set title length. If this option is not given, the title length defaults to the line length. -rPnnn Enumeration of pages will start with nnn rather than with 1. -rSxx Base document font size is xx points (xx can be 10, 11, or 12) rather than 10 points. -rSN=width Set sub-subheading indentation to width. The default is 3n. -rXnnn After page nnn, number pages as nnna, nnnb, nnnc, etc. For example, the option `-rX2' will produce the following page num- bers: 1, 2, 2a, 2b, 2c, etc.
USAGE
This section describes the available macros for manual pages. For fur- ther customization, put additional macros and requests into the file man.local which will be loaded immediately after the man package. .TH title section [extra1] [extra2] [extra3] Set the title of the n page to title and the section to section, which must take on a value between 1 and 8. The value section may also have a string appended, e.g. `.pm', to indicate a spe- cific subsection of the man pages. Both title and section are positioned at the left and right in the header line (with sec- tion in parentheses immediately appended to title. extra1 will be positioned in the middle of the footer line. extra2 will be positioned at the left in the footer line (or at the left on even pages and at the right on odd pages if double-sided print- ing is active). extra3 is centered in the header line. For HTML output, headers and footers are completely supressed. Additionally, this macro starts a new page; the new line number is 1 again (except if the `-rC1' option is given on the command line) -- this feature is intended only for formatting multiple man pages; a single man page should contain exactly one TH macro at the beginning of the file. .SH [text for a heading] Set up an unnumbered section heading sticking out to the left. Prints out all the text following SH up to the end of the line (or the text in the next input line if there is no argument to SH) in bold face (or the font specified by the string HF), one size larger than the base document size. Additionally, the left margin and the indentation for the following text is reset to the default values. .SS [text for a heading] Set up a secondary, unnumbered section heading. Prints out all the text following SS up to the end of the line (or the text in the next input line if there is no argument to SS) in bold face (or the font specified by the string HF), at the same size as the base document size. Additionally, the left margin and the indentation for the following text is reset to the default val- ues. .TP [nnn] Set up an indented paragraph with label. The indentation is set to nnn if that argument is supplied (the default unit is `n' if omitted), otherwise it is set to the previous indentation value specified with TP, IP, or HP (or to the default value if none of them have been used yet). The first input line of text following this macro is interpreted as a string to be printed flush-left, as it is appropriate for a label. It is not interpreted as part of a paragraph, so there is no attempt to fill the first line with text from the follow- ing input lines. Nevertheless, if the label is not as wide as the indentation the paragraph starts at the same line (but indented), continuing on the following lines. If the label is wider than the indentation the descriptive part of the paragraph begins on the line following the label, entirely indented. Note that neither font shape nor font size of the label is set to a default value; on the other hand, the rest of the text will have default font settings. The TP macro is the macro used for the explanations you are just reading. .LP .PP .P These macros are mutual aliases. Any of them causes a line break at the current position, followed by a vertical space downwards by the amount specified by the PD macro. The font size and shape are reset to the default value (10pt resp. Roman). Finally, the current left margin and the indentation are restored. .IP [designator] [nnn] Set up an indented paragraph, using designator as a tag to mark its beginning. The indentation is set to nnn if that argument is supplied (the default unit is `n' if omitted), otherwise it is set to the previous indentation value specified with TP, IP, or HP (or to the default value if none of them have been used yet). Font size and face of the paragraph (but not the designa- tor) are reset to its default values. To start an indented paragraph with a particular indentation but without a designator, use `""' (two doublequotes) as the second argument. For example, the following paragraphs were all set up with bul- lets as the designator, using `.IP \(bu 4'. The whole block has been enclosed with `.RS' and `.RE' to set the left margin tempo- rarily to the current indentation value. IP is one of the three macros used in the man package to format lists. HP is another. This macro produces a paragraph with a left hanging indentation. TP is another. This macro produces an unindented label fol- lowed by an indented paragraph. .HP [nnn] Set up a paragraph with hanging left indentation. The indenta- tion is set to nnn if that argument is supplied (the default unit is `n' if omitted), otherwise it is set to the previous indentation value specified with TP, IP, or HP (or to the default value if none of them have been used yet). Font size and face are reset to its default values. The following para- graph illustrates the effect of this macro with hanging indenta- tion set to 4 (enclosed by .RS and .RE to set the left margin temporarily to the current indentation): This is a paragraph following an invocation of the HP macro. As you can see, it produces a paragraph where all lines but the first are indented. .RS [nnn] This macro moves the left margin to the right by the value nnn if specified (default unit is `n'); otherwise it is set to the previous indentation value specified with TP, IP, or HP (or to the default value if none of them have been used yet). The indentation value is then set to the default. Calls to the RS macro can be nested. .RE [nnn] This macro moves the left margin back to level nnn, restoring the previous left margin. If no argument is given, it moves one level back. The first level (i.e., no call to RS yet) has num- ber 1, and each call to RS increases the level by 1. To summarize, the following macros cause a line break with the inser- tion of vertical space (which amount can be changed with the PD macro): SH, SS, TP, LP (PP, P), IP, and HP. The macros RS and RE also cause a break but no insertion of vertical space.
MACROS TO SET FONTS
The standard font is Roman; the default text size is 10 point. .SM [text] Causes the text on the same line or the text on the next input line to appear in a font that is one point size smaller than the default font. .SB [text] Causes the text on the same line or the text on the next input line to appear in boldface font, one point size smaller than the default font. .BI text Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in bold face and italic. The text must be on the same line as the macro call. Thus .BI this "word and" that would cause `this' and `that' to appear in bold face, while `word and' appears in italics. .IB text Causes text to appear alternately in italic and bold face. The text must be on the same line as the macro call. .RI text Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in roman and italic. The text must be on the same line as the macro call. .IR text Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in italic and roman. The text must be on the same line as the macro call. .BR text Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in bold face and roman. The text must be on the same line as the macro call. .RB text Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in roman and bold face. The text must be on the same line as the macro call. .B [text] Causes text to appear in bold face. If no text is present on the line where the macro is called the text of the next input line appears in bold face. .I [text] Causes text to appear in italic. If no text is present on the line where the macro is called the text of the next input line appears in italic.
MISCELLANEOUS
The default indentation is 7.2n in troff mode and 7n in nroff mode except for grohtml which ignores indentation. .DT Set tabs every 0.5 inches. Since this macro is always called during a TH request, it makes sense to call it only if the tab positions have been changed. .PD [nnn] Adjust the empty space before a new paragraph or section. The optional argument gives the amount of space (default unit is `v'); without parameter, the value is reset to its default value (1 line in nroff mode, 0.4v otherwise). This affects the macros SH, SS, TP, LP (resp. PP and P), IP, and HP. .AT [system [release]] Alter the footer for use with AT&T man pages. This command exists only for compatibility; don't use it. See the groff info manual for more. .UC [version] Alter the footer for use with BSD man pages. This command exists only for compatibility; don't use it. See the groff info manual for more. .PT Print the header string. Redefine this macro to get control of the header. .BT Print the footer string. Redefine this macro to get control of the footer. The following strings are defined: \*S Switch back to the default font size. \*R The `registered' sign. \*(Tm The `trademark' sign. \*(lq \*(rq Left and right quote. This is equal to `\(lq' and `\(rq', respectively. \*(HF The typeface used to print headings and subheadings. The default is `B'. If a preprocessor like tbl or eqn is needed, it has become usage to make the first line of the man page look like this: .\" word Note the single space character after the double quote. word consists of letters for the needed preprocessors: `e' for eqn, `r' for refer, and `t' for tbl. Modern implementations of the man program read this first line and automatically call the right preprocessor(s).
FILES
man.tmac an.tmac These are wrapper files to call andoc.tmac. andoc.tmac This file checks whether the man macros or the mdoc package should be used. an-old.tmac All man macros are contained in this file. man.local Local changes and customizations should be put into this file.
SEE ALSO
Since the man macros consist of groups of groff requests, one can, in principle, supplement the functionality of the man macros with individ- ual groff requests where necessary. See the groff info pages for a complete reference of all requests. tbl(1), eqn(1), refer(1), man(1), man(7),
AUTHOR
This manual page was originally written for the Debian GNU/Linux system by Susan G. Kleinmann <sgk@debian.org>, corrected and updated by Werner Lemberg <wl@gnu.org>, and is now part of the GNU troff distribution. Groff Version 1.19.2 September 4, 2005 GROFF_MAN(7)
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