closelog(3) - NetBSD Manual Pages

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SYSLOG(3)               NetBSD Library Functions Manual              SYSLOG(3)

syslog, syslog_r, vsyslog, vsyslog_r, syslogp, syslogp_r, vsyslogp, vsyslogp_r, openlog, openlog_r, closelog, closelog_r, setlogmask, setlogmask_r -- control system log
Standard C Library (libc, -lc)
#include <syslog.h> void syslog(int priority, const char *message, ...); void syslog_r(int priority, struct syslog_data *data, const char *message, ...); void syslogp(int priority, const char *msgid, const char *sdfmt, const char *message, ...); void syslogp_r(int priority, struct syslog_data *data, const char *msgid, const char *sdfmt, const char *message, ...); void openlog(const char *ident, int logopt, int facility); void openlog_r(const char *ident, int logopt, int facility, struct syslog_data *data); void closelog(void); void closelog_r(struct syslog_data *data); int setlogmask(int maskpri); int setlogmask_r(int maskpri, struct syslog_data *data); #include <stdarg.h> void vsyslog(int priority, const char *message, va_list args); void vsyslog_r(int priority, struct syslog_data *data, const char *message, va_list args); void vsyslogp(int priority, const char *msgid, const char *sdfmt, const char *message, va_list args); void vsyslogp_r(int priority, struct syslog_data *data, const char *msgid, const char *sdfmt, const char *message, va_list args);
The syslog() function writes message to the system message logger. The message is then written to the system console, log files, logged-in users, or forwarded to other machines as appropriate (see syslogd(8)). The message is identical to a printf(3) format string, except that `%m' is replaced by the current error message. (As denoted by the global variable errno; see strerror(3).) A trailing newline is added if none is present. The syslog_r() function is a multithread-safe version of the syslog() function. It takes a pointer to a syslog_data structure which is used to store information. This parameter must be initialized before syslog_r() is called. The SYSLOG_DATA_INIT constant is used for this purpose. The syslog_data structure and the SYSLOG_DATA_INIT constant are defined as: struct syslog_data { int log_file; int connected; int opened; int log_stat; const char *log_tag; int log_fac; int log_mask; }; #define SYSLOG_DATA_INIT { \ .log_file = -1, \ .log_fac = LOG_USER, \ .log_mask = 0xff, \ } The structure is composed of the following elements: log_file contains the file descriptor of the file where the mes- sage is logged connected indicates if connect has been done opened indicates if openlog_r() has been called log_stat status bits, set by openlog_r() log_tag string to tag the entry with log_fac facility code log_mask mask of priorities to be logged The vsyslog() function is an alternative form in which the arguments have already been captured using the variable-length argument facilities of stdarg(3). The syslogp() variants take additional arguments which correspond to new fields in the syslog-protocol message format. All three arguments are evaluated as printf(3) format strings and any of them can be NULL. This enables applications to use message IDs, structured data, and UTF-8 encoded content in messages. The message is tagged with priority. Priorities are encoded as a facility and a level. The facility describes the part of the system gen- erating the message. The level is selected from the following ordered (high to low) list: LOG_EMERG A panic condition. This is normally broadcast to all users. LOG_ALERT A condition that should be corrected immediately, such as a corrupted system database. LOG_CRIT Critical conditions, e.g., hard device errors. LOG_ERR Errors. LOG_WARNING Warning messages. LOG_NOTICE Conditions that are not error conditions, but should possi- bly be handled specially. LOG_INFO Informational messages. LOG_DEBUG Messages that contain information normally of use only when debugging a program. The vsyslog_r() is used the same way as vsyslog() except that it takes an additional pointer to a syslog_data structure. It is a multithread-safe version of the vsyslog() function described above. The openlog() function provides for more specialized processing of the messages sent by syslog() and vsyslog(). The parameter ident is a string that will be prepended to every message. The logopt argument is a bit field specifying logging options, which is formed by OR'ing one or more of the following values: LOG_CONS If syslog() cannot pass the message to syslogd(8) it will attempt to write the message to the console (``/dev/console''). LOG_NDELAY Open the connection to syslogd(8) immediately. Normally the open is delayed until the first message is logged. Useful for programs that need to manage the order in which file descriptors are allocated. LOG_NLOG Stops syslog from writing to the system log. Only useful with LOG_PERROR. LOG_PERROR Write the message to standard error output as well to the system log. LOG_PID Log the process id with each message: useful for identify- ing instantiations of daemons. (This PID is placed within brackets between the ident and the message.) LOG_PTRIM Trim anything syslog added to the message before writing to standard error output. The facility parameter encodes a default facility to be assigned to all messages that do not have an explicit facility encoded: LOG_AUTH The authorization system: login(1), su(1), getty(8), etc. LOG_AUTHPRIV The same as LOG_AUTH, but logged to a file readable only by selected individuals. LOG_CRON The cron daemon: cron(8). LOG_DAEMON System daemons, such as routed(8), that are not provided for explicitly by other facilities. LOG_FTP The file transfer protocol daemon: ftpd(8). LOG_KERN Messages generated by the kernel. These cannot be gener- ated by any user processes. LOG_LPR The line printer spooling system: lpr(1), lpc(8), lpd(8), etc. LOG_MAIL The mail system. LOG_NEWS The network news system. LOG_SYSLOG Messages generated internally by syslogd(8). LOG_USER Messages generated by random user processes. This is the default facility identifier if none is specified. LOG_UUCP The uucp system. LOG_LOCAL0 Reserved for local use. Similarly for LOG_LOCAL1 through LOG_LOCAL7. The openlog_r() function is the multithread-safe version of the openlog() function. It takes an additional pointer to a syslog_data structure. This function must be used in conjunction with the other multithread-safe functions. The closelog() function can be used to close the log file. The closelog_r() does the same thing as closelog(3) but in a multithread- safe way and takes an additional pointer to a syslog_data structure. The setlogmask() function sets the log priority mask to maskpri and returns the previous mask. Calls to syslog() with a priority not set in maskpri are rejected. The mask for an individual priority pri is calcu- lated by the macro LOG_MASK(pri); the mask for all priorities up to and including toppri is given by the macro LOG_UPTO(toppri). The default allows all priorities to be logged. The setlogmask_r() function is the multithread-safe version of setlogmask(). It takes an additional pointer to a syslog_data structure.
The routines closelog(), closelog_r(), openlog(), openlog_r(), syslog(), syslog_r(), vsyslog(), vsyslog_r(), syslogp(), syslogp_r(), vsyslogp(), and vsyslogp_r() return no value. The routines setlogmask() and setlogmask_r() always return the previous log mask level.
syslog(LOG_ALERT, "who: internal error 23"); openlog("ftpd", LOG_PID | LOG_NDELAY, LOG_FTP); setlogmask(LOG_UPTO(LOG_ERR)); syslog(LOG_INFO, "Connection from host %d", CallingHost); syslog(LOG_INFO|LOG_LOCAL2, "foobar error: %m"); syslogp(LOG_INFO|LOG_LOCAL2, NULL, NULL, "foobar error: %m"); syslogp(LOG_INFO, "ID%d", "[meta language=\"en-US\"]", "event: %s", 42, EventDescription); For the multithread-safe functions: struct syslog_data sdata = SYSLOG_DATA_INIT; syslog_r(LOG_INFO|LOG_LOCAL2, &sdata, "foobar error: %m");
logger(1), syslogd(8) The BSD syslog Protocol, RFC, 3164, August 2001. The syslog Protocol, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-syslog-protocol-23, September 2007.
These non-multithread-safe functions appeared in 4.2BSD. The multi- thread-safe functions appeared in OpenBSD 3.1 and then in NetBSD 4.0. The async-signal-safe functions appeared in NetBSD 4.0. The syslog-pro- tocol functions appeared in NetBSD 5.0.
It is important never to pass a string with user-supplied data as a for- mat without using `%s'. An attacker can put format specifiers in the string to mangle your stack, leading to a possible security hole. This holds true even if you have built the string ``by hand'' using a function like snprintf(), as the resulting string may still contain user-supplied conversion specifiers for later interpolation by syslog(). Always be sure to use the proper secure idiom: syslog(priority, "%s", string); With syslogp() the caller is responsible to use the right formatting for the message fields. A msgid must only contain up to 32 ASCII characters. A sdfmt has strict rules for parenthesis and character quoting. If the msgfmt contains UTF-8 characters, then it has to start with a Byte Order Mark. NetBSD 10.0 March 22, 2017 NetBSD 10.0
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