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USBNET(9)              NetBSD Kernel Developer's Manual              USBNET(9)

usbnet -- common USB Ethernet driver framework
#include <dev/usb/usbnet.h> Functions offered by usbnet.h void usbnet_set_link(struct usbnet *un, bool link); struct ifnet * usbnet_ifp(struct usbnet *un); struct ethercom * usbnet_ec(struct usbnet *un); struct mii_data * usbnet_mii(struct usbnet *un); krndsource_t * usbnet_rndsrc(struct usbnet *un); void * usbnet_softc(struct usbnet *un); bool usbnet_havelink(struct usbnet *un); int usbnet_ispromisc(struct usbnet *un); bool usbnet_isdying(struct usbnet *un); void usbnet_enqueue(struct usbnet *un, uint8_t *buf, size_t buflen, int csum_flags, uint32_t csum_data, int mbuf_flags); void usbnet_input(struct usbnet *un, uint8_t *buf, size_t buflen); void usbnet_attach(struct usbnet *un); void usbnet_attach_ifp(struct usbnet *un, unsigned if_flags, unsigned if_extflags, const struct usbnet_mii *unm); int usbnet_detach(device_t dev, int flags); int usbnet_activate(device_t dev, devact_t act);
The usbnet framework provides methods usable for USB Ethernet drivers. The framework has support for these features: Partial autoconf handling USB endpoint pipe handling Rx and Tx chain handling Generic handlers or support for several struct ifnet call- backs Network stack locking protocol Interrupt handling usbnet provides many or all of the traditional ``softc'' members inside struct usbnet, which can be used directly as the device softc structure if no additional storage is required. A structure exists for receive and transmit chain management, struct usbnet_chain, that tracks the metadata for each transfer descriptor available, minimum of one each for Rx and Tx slot, and will be passed to the Rx and Tx callbacks. There is a struct usbnet_ops structure that provides a number of optional and required callbacks that will be described below. For autoconfiguration the device attach routine is expected to ensure that this device's struct usbnet is the first member of the device softc, if it can not be used directly as the device softc, as well as set up the necessary structure members, find end-points, find the Ethernet address if relevant, call usbnet_attach(), set up interface, Ethernet, and MII capabilities, and finally call usbnet_attach_ifp(). The device detach routine should free any resources allocated by attach and then call usbnet_detach(), possibly directly using usbnet_detach() as most con- sumers have no additional resources not owned and released by the usbnet framework itself. The device activate function should be set to usbnet_activate(). When bringing an interface up from if_init(9), which happens under IFNET_LOCK(9), usbnet will: 1. call ``uno_init'' to initialize the hardware for sending and receiv- ing packets, 2. open the USB pipes, 3. allocate Rx and Tx buffers for transfers, 4. call ``uno_mcast'' to initially program the hardware multicast fil- ter, and finally 5. start the Rx transfers so packets can be received. See the RECEIVE AND SEND section for details on using the chains. When bringing an interface down from if_stop(9), which happens under IFNET_LOCK(9), usbnet will: 1. abort the USB pipes, 2. call ``uno_stop'' to stop the hardware from receiving packets (unless the device is detaching), 3. free Rx and Tx buffers for transfers, and 4. close the USB pipes. For interface ioctl, most of the handling is in the framework. While the interface is running, the optional ``uno_mcast'' callback is invoked after handling the SIOCADDMULTI and SIOCDELMULTI ioctl commands to update the hardware's multicast filter from the ethersubr(9) lists. The optional ``uno_ioctl'' callback, which is invoked under IFNET_LOCK(9), can be used to program special settings like offload handling. If ioctl handling requires capturing device-specific ioctls then the ``uno_override_ioctl'' callback may be used instead to replace the frame- work's ioctl handler completely (i.e., the replacement should call any generic ioctl handlers such as ether_ioctl() as required.) For sending packets, the ``uno_tx_prepare'' callback must be used to convert an mbuf into a chain buffer ready for transmission. For devices requiring MII handling there are callbacks for reading and writing registers, and for status change events. Access to all the MII functions is serialized by usbnet. As receive must handle the case of multiple packets in one buffer, the support is split between the driver and the framework. A ``uno_rx_loop'' callback must be provided that loops over the incoming packet data found in a chain, performs necessary checking and passes the network frame up the stack via either usbnet_enqueue() or usbnet_input(). Typically Eth- ernet devices prefer usbnet_enqueue(). General accessor functions for struct usbnet: usbnet_set_link(un, link) Set the link status for this un to link. usbnet_ifp(un) Returns pointer to this un's struct ifnet. usbnet_ec(un) Returns pointer to this un's struct ethercom. usbnet_mii(un) Returns pointer to this un's struct mii_data. usbnet_rndsrc(un) Returns pointer to this un's krndsource_t. usbnet_softc(un) Returns pointer to this un's device softc. usbnet_havelink(un) Returns true if link is active. usbnet_ispromisc(un) True if IFF_PROMISC is enabled, false if not. May be used only in ``uno_init'' and ``uno_mcast''. Drivers must use this in ``uno_mcast'' instead of reading ifp->if_flags. usbnet_isdying(un) Returns true if device is dying (has been pulled or deactivated, pending detach). This should be used only to abort timeout loops early. Buffer enqueue handling for struct usbnet: usbnet_enqueue(un, buf, buflen, csum_flags, csum_data, mbuf_flags) Enqueue buffer buf for length buflen with higher layers, using the provided csum_flags, and csum_data, which are written directly to the mbuf packet header, and mbuf_flags, which is or-ed into the mbuf flags for the created mbuf. usbnet_input(un, buf, buflen) Enqueue buffer buf for length buflen with higher layers. Autoconfiguration handling for struct usbnet. See the AUTOCONFIGURATION section for more details about these functions. usbnet_attach(un) Initial stage attach of a usb network device. Performs internal initialization and memory allocation only -- nothing is published yet. usbnet_attach_ifp(un, if_flags, if_extflags, unm) Final stage attach of usb network device. Publishes the network interface to the rest of the system. If the passed in unm is non-NULL then an MII interface will be cre- ated using the values provided in the struct usbnet_mii structure, which has these members passed to mii_attach(): un_mii_flags Flags. un_mii_capmask Capability mask. un_mii_phyloc PHY location. un_mii_offset PHY offset. A default unm can be set using the USBNET_MII_DECL_DEFAULT() macro. The if_flags and if_extflags will be or-ed into the interface flags and extflags. usbnet_detach(dev, flags) Device detach. Stops all activity and frees memory. Usable as driver(9) detach method. usbnet_activate(dev, act) Device activate (deactivate) method. Usable as driver(9) activate method.
The framework expects the usbnet structure to have these members filled in with valid values or functions: un_sc Real softc allocated by autoconf and provided to attach, should be set to the usbnet structure if no device-specific softc is needed. un_dev device_t saved in attach, used for messages mostly. un_iface The USB iface handle for data interactions, see usbd_device2interface_handle() for more details. un_udev The struct usbd_device for this device, provided as the usb_attach_arg's uaa_device member. un_ops Points to a struct usbnet_ops structure which contains these mem- bers: void (*uno_stop)(struct ifnet *ifp, int disable) Stop hardware activity (optional). Called under IFNET_LOCK(9) when bringing the interface down, but skipped when the device is detaching. int (*uno_ioctl)(struct ifnet *ifp, u_long cmd, void *data) Handle driver-specific ioctls (optional). Called under IFNET_LOCK(9). void (*uno_mcast)(struct ifnet *) Program hardware multicast filters from ethersubr(9) lists (optional). Called between, and not during, ``uno_init'' and ``uno_stop''. int (*uno_override_ioctl)(struct ifnet *ifp, u_long cmd, void *data) Handle all ioctls, including standard ethernet ioctls nor- mally handled internally by usbnet (optional). May or may not be called under IFNET_LOCK(9). int (*uno_init)(struct ifnet *ifp) Initialize hardware activity (optional). Called under IFNET_LOCK(9) when bringing the interface up. int (*uno_read_reg)(struct usbnet *un, int phy, int reg, uint16_t *val) Read MII register. Required with MII. Serialized with other MII functions, and only called after ``uno_init'' and before ``uno_stop''. int (*uno_write_reg)(struct usbnet *un, int phy, int reg, uint16_t val) Write MII register. Required with MII. Serialized with other MII functions, and only called after ``uno_init'' and before ``uno_stop''. usbd_status (*uno_statchg)(struct ifnet *ifp) Handle MII status change. Required with MII. Serialized with other MII functions, and only called after ``uno_init'' and before ``uno_stop''. unsigned (*uno_tx_prepare)(struct usbnet *un, struct mbuf *m, struct usbnet_chain *c) Prepare an mbuf for transmit. Required. Called sequen- tially between, and not during, ``uno_init'' and ``uno_stop''. void (*uno_rx_loop)(struct usbnet *un, struct usbnet_chain *c, uint32_t total_len) Prepare one or more chain for enqueue. Required. Called sequentially between, and not during, ``uno_init'' and ``uno_stop''. void (*uno_intr)(struct usbnet *un, usbd_status status) Process periodic interrupt (optional). Called sequentially between, and not during, ``uno_init'' and ``uno_stop''. void (*uno_tick)(struct usbnet *un) Called every second with USB task thread context (optional). Called sequentially between, and not during, ``uno_init'' and ``uno_stop''. un_intr Points to a struct usbnet_intr structure which should have these members set: uni_buf If non-NULL, points to a buffer passed to usbd_open_pipe_intr() in the device init callback, along with the size and interval. uni_bufsz Size of interrupt pipe buffer. uni_interval Frequency of the interrupt in milliseconds. un_ed Array of endpoint descriptors. There indexes are provided: USBNET_ENDPT_RX, USBNET_ENDPT_TX, and USBNET_ENDPT_INTR. The Rx and Tx endpoints are required. un_phyno MII phy number. Not used by usbnet. un_eaddr 6 bytes of Ethernet address that must be provided before calling usbnet_attach_ifp() if the device has Ethernet. un_flags Device owned flags word. The usbnet framework will not touch this value. un_rx_xfer_flags Passed to usbd_setup_xfer() for receiving packets. un_tx_xfer_flags Passed to usbd_setup_xfer() for sending packets. un_rx_list_cnt Number of chain elements to allocate for Rx. un_tx_list_cnt Number of chain elements to allocate for Tx. un_rx_bufsz Rx buffer size. un_tx_bufsz Tx buffer size. The device detach and activate callbacks can typically be set to usbnet_detach() and usbnet_activate() unless device-specific handling is required, in which case, they can be called before or after such han- dling. The capabilities described in both struct ifp and struct ethercom must be set before calling usbnet_attach_ifp().
Receive and send routines are structured around the usbnet_cdata and usbnet_chain structures, the un_ed, un_rx_xfer_flags, and un_tx_xfer_flags members, and the uno_init(), uno_tx_prepare(), uno_rx_loop(), and uno_stop() callbacks of usbnet_ops. Typically, the device attach routine will fill in members of the usbnet structure, as listed in AUTOCONFIGURATION. The un_ed array should have the USBNET_ENDPT_RX and USBNET_ENDPT_TX array entries filled in, and optionally the USBNET_ENDPT_INTR entry filled in if applicable. The uno_init() callback enables the hardware, and if necessary reprograms the hardware multicast filter, before the framework initiates USB Tx/Rx transfers. All USB transfer setup is handled by the framework. The driver callbacks merely copy data in or out of a chain entry using what is typically a device-specific method. The uno_rx_loop() callback, called sequentially, converts the provided usbnet_chain data and length into a series (one or more) of packets that are enqueued with the higher layers using either usbnet_enqueue() (for most devices) or usbnet_input() for devices that use if_input(). (This currently relies upon the struct ifnet having the ``_if_input'' member set as well, which is true for current consumers.) The uno_tx_prepare() callback must convert the provided struct mbuf into the provided struct usbnet_chain performing any device-specific padding, checksum, header or other. Note that this callback must check that it is not attempting to copy more than the chain buffer size, as set in the usbnet ``un_tx_bufsz'' member. This callback is only called once per packet, sequentially. The struct usbnet_chain structure which contains a ``unc_buf'' member which has the chain buffer allocated where data should be copied to or from for receive or transmit operations. It also contains pointers back to the owning struct usbnet, and the struct usbd_xfer associated with this transfer. After aborting all USB Tx/Rx transfers when bringing an interface down, the framework calls the optional uno_stop() callback to disable the hard- ware.
For devices that have MII support these callbacks in struct usbnet_ops must be provided: uno_read_reg Read an MII register for a particular PHY. Returns standard errno(2). Must initialize the result even on failure. uno_write_reg Write an MII register for a particular PHY. Returns standard errno(2). uno_statchg Handle a status change event for this interface.
The interrupt specific callback, ``uno_intr'', is an optional callback that can be called periodically, registered by usbnet using the usbd_open_pipe_intr() function (instead of the usbd_open_pipe() func- tion.) The usbnet framework provides most of the interrupt handling and the callback simply inspects the returned buffer as necessary. To enable the this callback point the struct usbnet member ``un_intr'' to a struct usbnet_intr structure with these members set: uni_buf Data buffer for interrupt status relies. uni_bufsz Size of the above buffer. uni_interval Interval in millieconds. These values will be passed to usbd_open_pipe_intr().
The porting of an older driver to the usbnet framework is largely an effort in deleting code. The process involves making these changes: Headers Many headers are included in usbnet.h and can be removed from the driver, as well as headers no longer used, such as callout.h and rndsource.h, etc. Device softc The majority of the driver's existing ``softc'' structure can likely be replaced with usage of struct usbnet and its related functionality. This includes at least the device_t pointer, Ether- net address, the ethercom and mii_data structures, end point descriptors, usbd device, interface, and task and callout struc- tures (both these probably go away entirely) and all the associated watchdog handling, timevals, list size, buffer size and xfer flags for both Rx, and Tx, and interrupt notices, interface flags, device link, PHY number, chain data, locks including Rx, Tx, and MII. There is a driver-only ``un_flags'' in the usbnet structure avail- able for drivers to use. Many drivers can use the usbnet structure as the device private storage passed to CFATTACH_DECL_NEW. Many internal functions to the driver may look better if switched to operate on the device's usbnet as, for example, the usbd_device value is now available (and must be set by the driver) in the usbnet, which may be needed for any call to usbd_do_request(). The standard endpoint values must be stored in the usbnet ``un_ed[]'' array. As usbnet manages xfer chains all code related to the opening, closing, aborting and transferring of data on pipes is performed by the framework based upon the buffer size and more provided in subnet, so all code related to them should be deleted. Interface setup The vast majority of interface specific code should be deleted. For device-specific interface values, the ifnet flags and exflags can be set, as well as the ethercom ``ec_capabilities'' member, before calling usbnet_attach_ifp(). All calls to ifmedia_init(), mii_attach(), ifmedia_add(), ifmedia_set(), if_attach(), ether_ifattach(), rnd_attach_source(), and usbd_add_drv_event() should be eliminated. The device ``ioctl'' routine can use the default handling with a callback for additional device specific programming (multicast filters, etc.), which can be empty, or, the override ioctl can be used for heavier requirements. The device ``stop'' routine is replaced with a simple call that turns off the device-specific transmitter and receiver if necessary, as the framework handles pipes and transfers and buffers. MII handling For devices with MII support the three normal callbacks (read, write, and status change) must be converted to usbnet. Local ``link'' variables need to be replaced with accesses to usbnet_set_link() and usbnet_havelink(). Other ifmedia callbacks that were passed to ifmedia_init() should be deleted and any work moved into ``uno_statchg''. Receive and Transmit The usbnet framework handles the majority of handling of both net- work directions. The interface init routine should keep all of the device specific setup but replace all pipe management with a call to usbnet_init_rx_tx(). The typical receive handling will normally be replaced with a receive loop functions that can accept one or more packets, ``uno_rx_loop'', which can use either usbnet_enqueue() or usbnet_input() to pass the packets up to higher layers. The typical interface ``if_start'' function and any addi- tional functions used will normal be replaced with a relatively simple ``uno_tx_prepare'' function that simply converts an mbuf into a usbnet_chain useful for this device that will be passed onto usbd_transfer(). The framework's handling of the Tx interrupt is all internal. Interrupt pipe handling For devices requiring special handling of the interrupt pipe (i.e., they use the usbd_open_pipe_intr() method), most of the interrupt handler should be deleted, leaving only code that inspects the result of the interrupt transfer. Common errors It's common to forget to set link active on devices with MII. Be sure to call usbnet_set_link() during any status change event. Many locking issues are hidden without LOCKDEBUG, including hard- hangs. It's highly recommended to develop with LOCKDEBUG. The usbnet ``un_ed'' array is unsigned and should use ``0'' as the no-endpoint value.
usb(4), driver(9), usbd_status(9), usbdi(9)
This usbnet interface first appeared in NetBSD 9.0. Portions of the original design are based upon ideas from Nick Hudson <>.
Matthew R. Green <> NetBSD 10.99 March 15, 2020 NetBSD 10.99
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