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COMPAT_LINUX(8) NetBSD System Manager's Manual COMPAT_LINUX(8)
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compat_linux -- setup procedure for running Linux binaries
NetBSD supports running Linux binaries. This applies to aarch64, alpha,
amd64, arm, i386, m68k, and powerpc systems for now. Both the a.out and
ELF binary formats are supported. Most programs should work. NetBSD
aarch64 and amd64 can execute both 32-bit and 64-bit Linux programs.
Programs that will not work include some that use i386-specific calls,
such as enabling virtual 8086 mode. Currently, sound is supported
through OSSv3 compat.
The Linux compatibility feature is active for kernels compiled with the
COMPAT_LINUX option enabled. If support for Linux a.out executables is
desired, the EXEC_AOUT option should be enabled in addition to option
COMPAT_LINUX. Similarly, if support for Linux 32-bit and/or 64-bit ELF
executables is desired, the EXEC_ELF32 and/or EXEC_ELF64 options (respec-
tively) should be enabled in addition to COMPAT_LINUX. If sound support
is desired, COMPAT_OSSAUDIO should be enabled.
A lot of programs are dynamically linked. This means that you will also
need the Linux shared libraries that the program depends on, and the run-
time linker. Also, you will need to create a ``shadow root'' directory
for Linux binaries on your NetBSD system. This directory is named
/emul/linux or /emul/linux32 for 32-bit emulation on 64-bit systems. Any
file operations done by Linux programs run under NetBSD will look in this
directory first. So, if a Linux program opens, for example, /etc/passwd,
NetBSD will first try to open /emul/linux/etc/passwd, and if that does
not exist open the `real' /etc/passwd file. It is recommended that you
install Linux packages that include configuration files, etc under
/emul/linux, to avoid naming conflicts with possible NetBSD counterparts.
Shared libraries should also be installed in the shadow tree. Filenames
that start "/../" are only looked up in the real root.
Generally, you will need to look for the shared libraries that Linux
binaries depend on only the first few times that you install a Linux pro-
gram on your NetBSD system. After a while, you will have a sufficient
set of Linux shared libraries on your system to be able to run newly
imported Linux binaries without any extra work.
Setting up shared libraries
Find the dependencies of a Linux binary using readelf(1):
$ readelf -d ./runner | grep Shared
0x00000001 (NEEDED) Shared library: [libstdc++.so.6]
0x00000001 (NEEDED) Shared library: [libz.so.1]
0x00000001 (NEEDED) Shared library: [libXxf86vm.so.1]
0x00000001 (NEEDED) Shared library: [libGL.so.1]
0x00000001 (NEEDED) Shared library: [libopenal.so.1]
0x00000001 (NEEDED) Shared library: [libm.so.6]
0x00000001 (NEEDED) Shared library: [librt.so.1]
0x00000001 (NEEDED) Shared library: [libpthread.so.0]
0x00000001 (NEEDED) Shared library: [libdl.so.2]
0x00000001 (NEEDED) Shared library: [libcrypto.so.1.0.0]
0x00000001 (NEEDED) Shared library: [libXext.so.6]
0x00000001 (NEEDED) Shared library: [libX11.so.6]
0x00000001 (NEEDED) Shared library: [libXrandr.so.2]
0x00000001 (NEEDED) Shared library: [libGLU.so.1]
0x00000001 (NEEDED) Shared library: [libssl.so.1.0.0]
0x00000001 (NEEDED) Shared library: [libgcc_s.so.1]
0x00000001 (NEEDED) Shared library: [libc.so.6]
For x86, you can simply install the openSUSE shared libraries using the
pkgsrc/emulators/suse131_* or pkgsrc/emulators/suse131_32_* packages.
For example, an application which requires libcrypto.so.1.0.0,
libXext.so.6, and libGL.so.1 will require openssl, x11, and glx, in addi-
tion to the base SUSE package.
Otherwise, you may have to obtain shared libraries from another Linux
system, and copy them to e.g. /emul/linux/lib64.
Setting up procfs
Some Linux binaries expect procfs to be mounted and that it contains some
Linux-specific extensions. If it's not the case, they behave unexpect-
edly or even crash.
Mount procfs on NetBSD using following command:
$ mount_procfs procfs /emul/linux/proc
You can also set up your system so that procfs is mounted automatically
on system boot, by putting an entry like the one below to /etc/fstab.
procfs /emul/linux/proc procfs ro
Note: mount_procfs(8) defaults to Linux flavored procfs since NetBSD 5.0.
Ensure you do not mount procfs with nolinux.
See mount_procfs(8) for further information.
Setting up other files
Newer version of Linux use /etc/nsswitch.conf for network information,
such as NIS and DNS. You must create or get a valid copy of this file
and put it in /emul/linux/etc.
compat_linux is generally not enabled in GENERIC kernels for security
reasons, but is available as a module. It must be added to
modules.conf(5) to be used. It will not be loaded automatically.
The information about Linux distributions will become outdated.
Absolute pathnames pointed to by symbolic links are only looked up in the
shadow root when the symbolic link itself was found by an absolute path-
name inside the shadow root. This is not consistent.
Linux executables cannot handle directory offset cookies > 32 bits.
Should such an offset occur, you will see the message ``linux_getdents:
dir offset too large for emulated program''. Currently, this can only
happen on NFS mounted file systems, mounted from servers that return off-
sets with information in the upper 32 bits. These errors should rarely
happen, but can be avoided by mounting this file system with offset
translation enabled. See the -X option to mount_nfs(8). The -2 option
to mount_nfs(8) will also have the desired effect, but is less prefer-
NetBSD 9.99 September 26, 2021 NetBSD 9.99