ofwboot(8) - NetBSD Manual Pages

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OFWBOOT(8)           NetBSD/macppc System Manager's Manual          OFWBOOT(8)


NAME
ofwboot, ofwboot.elf, ofwboot.xcf -- Open Firmware boot command
SYNOPSIS
ofwboot
DESCRIPTION
Open Firmware is a FORTH-like command interpreter started by the BootROM after the power-on self test (POST). This command interpreter allows the user flexibility in choosing how their machine boots an operating system. NetBSD uses Open Firmware to initialize many of the devices in a system and uses it to load the primary bootloader, ofwboot. The information in this man page should only serve as a guideline for users. Apple has made many revisions to Open Firmware, and the earlier versions had many problems and inconsistencies. You may find that a boot command that works on one model will not work on another. In this man page, only one Open Firmware command will be described, boot, because it is used to pass arguments to ofwboot. The Open Firmware boot command takes up to three arguments: boot [boot-device [boot-file]] [options] boot-device primary bootloader location boot-file kernel location options flags passed to the kernel (see below) boot-device The first argument, boot-device, actually designates the primary boot- loader location and its name in the form: boot-device:[partition-num],[bootloader-filename] A typical example, from a PowerBook (FireWire), is /pci@f2000000/mac-io@17/ata-4@1f000/@0:9,ofwboot.xcf Note that colon (`:') delimits the device to the left, and comma (`,') separates the boot loader filename from the first part. For Open Firmware versions before 3, the primary bootloader is installed in parti- tion ``zero'', and it is not necessary to specify the bootloader-file- name. For Open Firmware version 3, you must specify the bootloader-file- name. Open Firmware stores aliases to common devices in NVRAM. In the example above, /pci@f2000000/mac-io@17/ata-4@1f000/@0 is the path on a PowerBook (FireWire) to the built-in ATA/100 hard drive. Use the devalias command in Open Firmware to print out a list of common device names on a particu- lar model. The command above could then be simplified to: hd:9,ofwboot.xcf boot-loader-file-name is usually ofwboot.xcf. (See also the FILES sec- tion for further discussion.) If omitted, the Open Firmware variable boot-device is used. boot-file It may be necessary to specify the boot-file if Open Firmware does not know where to find the kernel. The default is to load the file named netbsd on partition ``a'' from the device used to load the primary boot- loader. For systems with Open Firmware versions less than 3 which are set up using sysinst, the boot-file argument is not necessary. Systems with Open Firmware version 3 may need to specify the boot-file. The syntax is similar to the boot-device argument: [boot-file-device:partition-num/][kernel-name] This is a little different, since a kernel-name may be specified without listing a boot-file-device and partition-num. Additionally, a boot-file- device and partition-num may need to be specified, while using the default kernel-name. If no kernel-name is specified, the primary bootloader will try to find kernels named either netbsd or netbsd.gz on the boot-device or (if speci- fied) boot-file-device. options Possible options are: -a ask for the boot device -s single-user mode boot -d debug mode exit exit to Open Firmware after processing arguments
ENVIRONMENT
If set, the following Open Firmware variables will be used to determine which boot-device and boot-file Open Firmware should use when booting a system. If the user specifies arguments on the command line, these val- ues are overridden. boot-device used as the first argument boot-file used as the second argument auto-boot? setting this variable to false will present the user with an Open Firmware command prompt after power-on reset. A value of true will automatically boot the system using the vari- ables boot-device and boot-file. (This is not really related to the boot command, but is included for complete- ness.) To restore these variables to their default values, use the set-default Open Firmware command: set-default boot-device
FILES
The three files ofwboot, ofwboot.elf, and ofwboot.xcf are the same pro- gram, in different executable formats. ofwboot ofwboot is installed via installboot(8) on systems with Open Firmware versions less than 3. It is not necessary to spec- ify this file name, as it is stored in a special location on the disk, partition ``zero''. For example, the following command might be used to boot from a SCSI device with ID 2: 0 >boot scsi-int/sd@2:0. ofwboot.xcf ofwboot.xcf is in XCOFF format. This file is used on all Open Firmware 3 systems, and on Open Firmware systems prior to 3 when the bootloader is not installed in partition ``zero'', such as from an ISO-9660 format CD-ROM. ofwboot.elf ofwboot.elf is in elf(5) format and only functions on sys- tems with Open Firmware version 3. To avoid confusion, all users should be using ofwboot.xcf, as ofwboot.elf offers no additional functionality. It is only included for histori- cal reasons. boot.fs This 1.44 MB disk image contains everything necessary to boot and install NetBSD. It includes the partition ``zero'' bootloader (ofwboot), an INSTALL kernel (with limited device drivers), and the sysinst utility in a RAM disk. Since Open Firmware does not care what media files are loaded from, only whether they are supported and in the correct format, this disk image may be placed on media other than floppy disks, such as hard drives or Zip disks. Use dd(1) on Unix, or DiskCopy on MacOS 9.1 or later, or suntar on any MacOS version to copy this image onto the media. netbsd production kernel, using the GENERIC set of devices which supports almost all hardware available for this platform. netbsd_GENERIC_MD.gz GENERIC kernel (the same as netbsd), with RAM disk and sysinst included. NetBSD-{RELEASE}-macppc.iso bootable CDROM image for all supported systems. Usually located at ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/images/{RELEASE}/NetBSD-{RELEASE}-macppc.iso
EXAMPLES
Boot an Open Firmware 3 system, with netbsd installed on partition ``a'': 0 > boot hd:,ofwboot.xcf Boot into single user mode: 0 > boot hd:,ofwboot.xcf netbsd -s Boot from bootable CDROM with Open Firmware 3 or higher: 0 > boot cd:,\ofwboot.xcf netbsd.macppc Boot from bootable CDROM (internal SCSI, id=3) of NetBSD 1.5 release with Open Firmware versions prior to 3: 0 > boot scsi/sd@3:0,OFWBOOT.XCF NETBSD.MACPPC Boot from floppy disk: 0 > boot fd:0 Boot from network, with bootps, bootptab(5), tftpd(8), and nfsd(8) server available: 0 > boot enet:0 Boot from network, but use internal root partition of second drive: 0 > boot enet:0 ultra1:0 Boot MacOS, looking for the first available bootable disk: 0 > boot hd:,\\:tbxi Boot MacOS X residing on partition 10: 0 > boot hd:10,\\:tbxi
ERRORS
DEFAULT CATCH!, code=FF00300 at %SRR0: FF80AD38 %SRR1: 00001070 Could be ``device not found'' or I/O errors on the device. The numbers are just for example. Can't LOAD from this device Open Firmware found the device, but it is not supported by load. 0 > boot yy:0/netbsd RESETing to change Configuration! yy:0 doesn't exist, so Open Firmware ignores the string and uses the default parameters to boot MacOS; the MacOS boot routine then clears some of the Open Firmware variables. 0 > boot ata/ata-disk@0:9 specified partition is not bootable ok As it says. 0 > boot ata/ata-disk@0:0 >> NetBSD/macppc OpenFirmware Boot, Revision 1.3 >> (root@nazuha, Fri Jun 8 22:21:55 JST 2001) no active package3337696/ and hangs: See the real-base part in the FAQ.
SEE ALSO
installboot(8) INSTALL.html NetBSD/macppc Frequently Asked Questions: http://www.NetBSD.org/ports/macppc/faq.html Diskless NetBSD HOW-TO: http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/network/netboot/
STANDARDS
IEEE Std 1275-1994 (``Open Firmware'')
BUGS
ofwboot can only boot from devices recognized by Open Firmware. Early PowerMacintosh systems (particularly the 7500) seem to have prob- lems with netbooting. Adding an arp entry at the tftp server with arp -s booting-host-name its-ethernet-address may resolve this problem (see arp(8)). 0 > boot CLAIM failed ok Once boot failed, successive boots may not be possible. You need to type reset-all or power-cycle to initialize Open Firmware. NetBSD 9.3 August 18, 2001 NetBSD 9.3
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