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WSKBD(4) NetBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual WSKBD(4)
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Maintained for NetBSD
by Kimmo Suominen.
Based on man-cgi by Panagiotis Christias.
wskbd -- generic keyboard support in wscons
wskbd* at pckbd? console ? mux 1
(standard PC keyboard)
wskbd* at ukbd? console ? mux 1
wskbd* at lkkbd? console ? mux 1
(DEC LK200/400 serial keyboard)
wskbd0 at akbd? console ? mux 1
(Apple ADB keyboard)
wskbd0 at nextkbd? console ? mux 1
wskbd* at vrkiu? console ? mux 1
(NEC VR4000 series HPC keyboard)
wskbd* at skbd? console ? mux 1
(keyboard of misc hpcmips handheld devices)
wskbd* at btkbd? console ? mux 1
The wskbd driver handles common tasks for keyboards within the wscons(4)
framework. It is attached to the hardware specific keyboard drivers and
provides their connection to ``wsdisplay'' devices and a character device
The common keyboard support consists of:
· Mapping from keycodes (defined by the specific keyboard driver) to
keysyms (hardware independent, defined in
· Handling of ``compose'' sequences. Characters commonly not present
as separate key on keyboards can be generated after either a special
``compose'' key is pressed or a ``dead accent'' character is used.
· Certain translations, like turning an ``ALT'' modifier into an
· Automatic key repetition (``typematic'').
· Parameter handling for ``keyboard bells''.
· Generation of ``keyboard events'' for use by X servers.
The wskbd driver provides a number of ioctl functions to control key maps
and other parameters. These functions are accessible though the associ-
ated ``wsdisplay'' device as well. A complete list is in
/usr/include/dev/wscons/wsconsio.h. The wsconsctl(8) utility allows to
access key maps and other variables.
The console locator in the configuration line refers to the device's use
as input part of the operating system console. A device specification
containing a positive value here will only match if the device is in use
as system console. (The console device selection in early system startup
is not influenced.) This way, the console device can be connected to a
known wskbd device instance.
The following encodings are supported. Device drivers for legacy key-
board interfaces may only support a subset of these. However, generally,
all encodings are supported by pckbd(4) and ukbd(4).
wsconsctl define language
user KB_USER User-defined
us KB_US English/US keyboard mapping (default)
uk KB_UK English/UK keyboard mapping
be KB_BE Belgian
br KB_BR Brazilian with ``dead accents''
cf KB_CF Canadian French
cz KB_CZ Czech (QWERTY)
dk KB_DK Danish with ``dead accents''
nl KB_NL Dutch
ee KB_EE Estonian with ``dead accents''
fi KB_FI Finnish
fr KB_FR French
de KB_DE German with ``dead accents''
gr KB_GR Greek
hu KB_HU Hungarian
is KB_IS Icelandic with ``dead accents''
it KB_IT Italian
jp KB_JP Japanese
la KB_LA Latin American Spanish
no KB_NO Norwegian with ``dead accents''
pl KB_PL Polish
pt KB_PT Portuguese
ru KB_RU Russian
es KB_ES Spanish
sv KB_SV Swedish with ``dead accents''
sf KB_SF Swiss French
sg KB_SG Swiss German
tr KB_TR Turkish (QWERTY) with ``dead
ua KB_UA Ukrainian
us.declk KB_US|KB_DECLK English/US mapping for DEC
LK400-style keyboards with PC
interface (e.g., LK461)
us.dvorak KB_US|KB_DVORAK English/US keyboard with
us.colemak KB_US|KB_COLEMAK English/US keyboard with
KB_NODEAD ( ``.nodead'') can be applied to layouts with ``dead accents''
to switch them off.
The KB_US, KB_UK, KB_FR, KB_JP and KB_US|KB_DVORAK mappings can be modi-
fied to swap the left CTRL and the CAPS LOCK keys by the KB_SWAPCTRLCAPS
variant bit or the ``.swapctrlcaps'' suffix.
The KB_METAESC ( ``.metaesc'') option can be applied to any layout. If
set, keys pressed together with the ALT modifier are prefixed by an ESC
character. (Standard behaviour is to add 128 to the ASCII value.)
The following ioctl(2) calls are provided by the wskbd driver or by
devices which use it. Their definitions are found in
Get the keyboard type.
WSKBDIO_COMPLEXBELL, WSKBDIO_SETBELL, WSKBDIO_GETBELL,
WSKBDIO_SETDEFAULTBELL, WSKBDIO_GETDEFAULTBELL (struct
Get and set keyboard bell settings.
WSKBDIO_SETKEYREPEAT, WSKBDIO_GETKEYREPEAT, WSKBDIO_SETDEFAULTKEYREPEAT,
WSKBDIO_GETDEFAULTKEYREPEAT (struct wskbd_keyrepeat_data)
Get and set keyboard autorepeat settings.
WSKBDIO_SETLEDS, WSKBDIO_GETLEDS (int)
Get and set keyboard LED settings.
WSKBDIO_GETMAP, WSKBDIO_SETMAP (struct wskbd_map_data)
Get and set keyboard keymapping settings.
WSKBDIO_GETENCODING, WSKBDIO_SETENCODING (kbd_t)
Get and set keyboard encoding settings.
WSKBDIO_GETKEYCLICK, WSKBDIO_SETKEYCLICK (int)
Get and set keyboard keyclick settings.
Set the wscons_event protocol version. The default is 0
for binary compatibility. The latest version is always
available as WSKBD_EVENT_VERSION, and is currently 1. All
new code should use a call similar to the below to ensure
the correct version is returned.
int ver = WSKBD_EVENT_VERSION;
if (ioctl(fd, WSKBDIO_SETVERSION, &ver) == -1)
err(EXIT_FAILURE, "cannot set version");
btkbd(4), pckbd(4), ukbd(4), wscons(4), wsmux(4), wsconsctl(8), wskbd(9)
The list of builtin mappings doesn't follow any logic. It grew as people
submitted what they needed.
NetBSD 9.1 July 13, 2020 NetBSD 9.1