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ZYD(4) NetBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual ZYD(4)
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zyd -- ZyDAS ZD1211/ZD1211B USB IEEE 802.11b/g wireless network device
zyd* at uhub? port ?
The zyd driver provides support for wireless network adapters based
around the ZyDAS ZD1211 and ZD1211B USB chips.
These are the modes the zyd driver can operate in:
BSS mode Also known as infrastructure mode, this is used when asso-
ciating with an access point, through which all traffic
passes. This mode is the default.
monitor mode In this mode the driver is able to receive packets without
associating with an access point. This disables the
internal receive filter and enables the card to capture
packets from networks which it wouldn't normally have
access to, or to scan for access points.
zyd supports software WEP. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is the de
facto encryption standard for wireless networks. It can be typically
configured in one of three modes: no encryption; 40-bit encryption; or
104-bit encryption. Unfortunately, due to serious weaknesses in WEP pro-
tocol it is strongly recommended that it not be used as the sole mecha-
nism to secure wireless communication. WEP is not enabled by default.
The zyd driver can be configured at runtime with ifconfig(8) or on boot
with ifconfig.if(5) using the following parameters:
Set the desired BSSID.
-bssid Unset the desired BSSID. The interface will automatically select
a BSSID in this mode, which is the default.
chan n Set the channel (radio frequency) to be used by the driver based
on the given channel ID n.
-chan Unset the desired channel to be used by the driver. The driver
will automatically select a channel in this mode, which is the
The zyd driver supports the following media types:
autoselect Enable autoselection of the media type and options.
DS1 Set 802.11b DS 1Mbps operation.
DS2 Set 802.11b DS 2Mbps operation.
DS5 Set 802.11b DS 5.5Mbps operation.
DS11 Set 802.11b DS 11Mbps operation.
The zyd driver supports the following media options:
ibss Select Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS) operation.
Disable the specified media options on the driver and return it
to the default mode of operation (BSS).
Set the network ID. The id can either be any text string up to
32 characters in length, or a series of hexadecimal digits up to
64 digits. An empty id string allows the interface to connect to
any available access points. By default the zyd driver uses an
empty string. Note that network ID is synonymous with Extended
Service Set ID (ESSID).
-nwid Set the network ID to the empty string to allow the interface to
connect to any available access point.
Enable WEP encryption using the specified key. The key can
either be a string, a series of hexadecimal digits (preceded by
`0x'), or a set of keys of the form ``n:k1,k2,k3,k4'', where `n'
specifies which of the keys will be used for transmitted packets,
and the four keys, ``k1'' through ``k4'', are configured as WEP
keys. If a set of keys is specified, a comma (`,') within the
key must be escaped with a backslash. Note that if multiple keys
are used, their order must be the same within the network. zyd
is capable of using both 40-bit (5 characters or 10 hexadecimal
digits) or 104-bit (13 characters or 26 hexadecimal digits) keys.
-nwkey Disable WEP encryption. This is the default mode of operation.
The following devices are known to be supported by the zyd driver:
Airlink 101 AWLL3026
AOpen 802.11g WL54
Asus A9T integrated wirless
Belkin F5D7050 v.4000
Billion BiPAC 3011G
DrayTek Vigor 550
Fiberline Networks WL-43OU
Sagem XG 760A
Sagem XG 76NA
Sandberg Wireless G54 USB
Sweex wireless USB 54 Mbps
Tekram/Siemens USB adapter
US Robotics 5423
Yakumo QuickWLAN USB
ZyXEL ZyAIR G-220
The adapter needs some firmware files, which are loaded on demand by the
driver when a device is attached:
See firmload(9) for how to change this.
The following ifconfig.if(5) example configures zyd0 to join whatever
network is available on boot, using WEP key ``0x1deadbeef1'', channel 11:
inet 192.168.1.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 nwkey 0x1deadbeef1 chan 11
Configure zyd0 for WEP, using hex key ``0x1deadbeef1'':
# ifconfig zyd0 nwkey 0x1deadbeef1
Return zyd0 to its default settings:
# ifconfig zyd0 -bssid -chan media autoselect \
nwid "" -nwkey
Join an existing BSS network, ``my_net'':
# ifconfig zyd0 192.168.0.2 netmask 0xffffff00 nwid my_net
zyd%d: could not read firmware file %s (error=%d) For some reason, the
driver was unable to read the firmware file from the filesystem. The
file might be missing or corrupted.
zyd%d: could not load firmware (error=%d) An error occurred while
attempting to upload the firmware to the onboard microcontroller unit.
zyd%d: could not send command (error=%s) An attempt to send a command to
the firmware failed.
zyd%d: sorry, radio %s is not supported yet Support for the specified
radio chip is not yet implemented in the driver. The device will not
zyd%d: device version mismatch: 0x%x (only >= 43.30 supported) Early
revisions of the ZD1211 chipset are not supported by this driver. The
device will not attach.
zyd%d: device timeout A frame dispatched to the hardware for transmis-
sion did not complete in time. The driver will reset the hardware. This
should not happen.
arp(4), ifmedia(4), intro(4), netintro(4), usb(4), ifconfig.if(5),
The zyd driver was written by Florian Stoehr <firstname.lastname@example.org>,
Damien Bergamini <email@example.com>, and Jonathan Gray
The zyd driver does not support a lot of the functionality available in
the hardware. More work is required to properly support the IBSS and
power management features.
NetBSD 7.1.2 May 28, 2007 NetBSD 7.1.2