EXPR(1) NetBSD General Commands Manual EXPR(1)Powered by man-cgi (2024-03-20). Maintained for NetBSD by Kimmo Suominen. Based on man-cgi by Panagiotis Christias.NAME

expr-- evaluate expressionSYNOPSIS

exprexpressionDESCRIPTION

Theexprutility evaluatesexpressionand writes the result on standard output. All operators are separate arguments to theexprutility. Characters special to the command interpreter must be escaped. Operators are listed below in order of increasing precedence. Operators with equal precedence are grouped within { } symbols.expr1|expr2Returns the evaluation ofexpr1if it is neither an empty string nor zero; otherwise, returns the evaluation ofexpr2.expr1&expr2Returns the evaluation ofexpr1if neither expression evaluates to an empty string or zero; otherwise, returns zero.expr1{=, >, >=, <, <=, !=}expr2Returns the results of integer comparison if both arguments are integers; otherwise, returns the results of string comparison using the locale-specific collation sequence. The result of each comparison is 1 if the specified relation is true, or 0 if the relation is false.expr1{+, -}expr2Returns the results of addition or subtraction of integer-valued arguments.expr1{*, /, %}expr2Returns the results of multiplication, integer division, or remainder of integer-valued arguments.expr1:expr2The ``:'' operator matchesexpr1againstexpr2, which must be a regular expression. The regular expression is anchored to the beginning of the string with an implicit ``^''. If the match succeeds and the pattern contains at least one regu- lar expression subexpression ``\(...\)'', the string correspond- ing to ``\1'' is returned; otherwise the matching operator returns the number of characters matched. If the match fails and the pattern contains a regular expression subexpression the null string is returned; otherwise 0. (expr) Parentheses are used for grouping in the usual manner. Additionally, the following keywords are recognized: lengthexprReturns the length of the specified string in bytes. Operator precedence (from highest to lowest): 1. parentheses 2. length 3. ``:'' 4. ``*'', ``/'', and ``%'' 5. ``+'' and ``-'' 6. compare operators 7. ``&'' 8. ``|''EXIT STATUS

Theexprutility exits with one of the following values: 0 the expression is neither an empty string nor 0. 1 the expression is an empty string or 0. 2 the expression is invalid. >2 an error occurred (such as memory allocation failure).EXAMPLES

1. The following example adds one to the variable a. a=`expr $a + 1` 2. The following example returns zero, due to subtraction having higher precedence than '&' operator. expr 1 '&' 1 - 1 3. The following example returns the filename portion of a pathname stored in variable a. expr /$a : '.*/\(.*\)' 4. The following example returns the number of characters in variable a. expr $a : '.*'COMPATIBILITY

This implementation ofexprinternally uses 64 bit representation of integers and checks for over- and underflows. It also treats / (division mark) and option '--' correctly depending upon context.expron other systems (including NetBSD up to and including NetBSD 1.5) might not be so graceful. Arithmetic results might be arbitrarily lim- ited on such systems, most commonly to 32 bit quantities. This means suchexprcan only process values between -2147483648 and +2147483647. On other systems,exprmight also not work correctly for regular expres- sions where either side contains single forward slash, like this: expr / : '.*/\(.*\)' If this is the case, you might use // (double forward slash) to avoid confusion with the division operator: expr "//$a" : '.*/\(.*\)' According to IEEE Std 1003.2 (``POSIX.2''),exprhas to recognize special option '--', treat it as an end of command line options and ignore it. Someexprimplementations don't recognize it at all, others might ignore it even in cases where doing so results in syntax error. There should be same result for both following examples, but it might not always be: 1. expr -- : . 2. expr -- -- : . Although NetBSDexprhandles both cases correctly, you should not depend on this behavior for portability reasons and avoid passing bare '--' as first argument.STANDARDS

Theexprutility conforms to IEEE Std 1003.2 (``POSIX.2''). Thelengthkeyword is an extension for compatibility with GNUexpr.AUTHORS

Original implementation was written by J.T. Conklin <jtc@NetBSD.org>. It was rewritten for NetBSD 1.6 by Jaromir Dolecek <jdolecek@NetBSD.org>.NOTES

The empty string ``'' cannot be matched with the intuitive: expr '' : '$' The reason is that the returned number of matched characters (zero) is indistinguishable from a failed match, so this returns failure. To match the empty string, use something like: expr x'' : 'x$' NetBSD 6.0 April 20, 2004 NetBSD 6.0