pkg_add(1) - NetBSD Manual Pages

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PKG_ADD(1)              NetBSD General Commands Manual              PKG_ADD(1)


NAME
pkg_add -- a utility for installing and upgrading software package dis- tributions
SYNOPSIS
pkg_add [-AfILnRuVv] [-K pkg_dbdir] [-m machine] [-p prefix] [-s verification-type] [-t template] [-W viewbase] [-w view] [[ftp|http]://[user[:password]@]host[:port]][/path/]pkg-name ...
DESCRIPTION
The pkg_add command is used to extract and upgrade packages that have been previously created with the pkg_create(1) command. Packages are prepared collections of pre-built binaries, documentation, configura- tions, installation instructions and/or other files. pkg_add can recur- sively install other packages that the current package depends on or requires from both local disk and via FTP or HTTP.
WARNING
Since the pkg_add command may execute scripts or programs contained within a package file, your system may be susceptible to ``Trojan horses'' or other subtle attacks from miscreants who create dangerous package files. You are advised to verify the competence and identity of those who pro- vide installable package files. For extra protection, use the digital signatures provided where possible (see the -s option), or, failing that, use tar(1) to extract the package file, and inspect its contents and scripts to ensure it poses no danger to your system's integrity. Pay particular attention to any +INSTALL or +DEINSTALL files, and inspect the +CONTENTS file for @cwd, @mode (check for setuid), @dirrm, @exec, and @unexec directives, and/or use the pkg_info(1) command to examine the package file.
OPTIONS
The following command line arguments are supported: pkg-name [...] The named packages are installed. pkg-name may be either a URL or a local pathname, a package name of "-" will cause pkg_add to read from stdin. If the packages are not found in the current working directory, pkg_add will search them in each directory named by the PKG_PATH environment variable. Any dependencies required by the installed package will be searched in the same location that the original package was installed from. -A Mark package as installed automatically, as dependency of another package. You can use pkg_admin set automatic=YES to mark packages this way after installation, and pkg_admin unset automatic to remove the mark. If you pkg_add a package without specifying -A after it had already been automatically installed, the mark is removed. -f Force installation to proceed even if prerequisite packages are not installed or the install script fails. Although pkg_add will still try to find and auto-install missing prerequisite packages, a failure to find one will not be fatal. This flag also over- rides the fatal error when the operating system or architecture the package was built on differ from that of the host. -I If an installation script exists for a given package, do not exe- cute it. -K pkg_dbdir Set pkg_dbdir as the package database directory. If this option isn't specified, then the package database directory is taken from the value of the environment variable PKG_DBDIR if it's set, otherwise it defaults to /var/db/pkg. -L Don't add the package to any views after installation. -m Override the machine architecture returned by uname with machine. -n Don't actually install a package, just report the steps that would be taken if it was. -p prefix Set prefix as the directory in which to extract files from a package. If a package has set its default directory, it will be overridden by this flag. Note that only the first @cwd directive will be replaced, since pkg_add has no way of knowing which directory settings are relative and which are absolute. Only one directory transition is supported and the second one is expected to go into pkgdb. -R Do not record the installation of a package. This means that you cannot deinstall it later, so only use this option if you know what you are doing! -s verification-type Use a callout to an external program to verify the binary package being installed against an existing detached signature file. The signature file must reside in the same directory as the binary package. At the present time, the following verification types are defined: none, gpg and pgp5. The signature will be verified at install time, and the results will be displayed. If the sig- nature type is anything other than none, the user will be asked if pkg_add should proceed to install the binary package. The user must then take the decision whether to proceed or not, depending upon the amount of trust that is placed in the signa- tory of the binary package. Please note that, at the current time, it is not possible to use the verification feature when using pkg_add to add a binary package via a URL - the package, and the related detached signature file, must be local for the verification to work. -t template Use template as the input to mktemp(3) when creating a ``staging area''. By default, this is the string /var/tmp/instmp.XXXXXX, but it may be necessary to override it in the situation where space in your /var/tmp directory is limited. Be sure to leave some number of `X' characters for mktemp(3) to fill in with a unique ID. You can get a performance boost by setting the staging area template to reside on the same disk partition as target directo- ries for package file installation; often this is /usr. -u If the package that's being installed is already installed, either in the same or a different version, an update is per- formed. If this is specified twice, then any dependant packages that are too old will also be updated to fulfill the dependency. See below for a more detailed description of the process. -V Print version number and exit. -v Turn on verbose output. -W viewbase Set viewbase as the base directory for the managed views. The default viewbase directory is set by pkg_view(1). This value also may be set from the LOCALBASE environment variable. -w view Set the view to which packages should be added after installa- tion. The default view is set by pkg_view(1). This value also may be set from the PKG_VIEW environment variable. One or more pkg-name arguments may be specified, each being either a file containing the package (these usually ending with the ``.tgz'' suffix) or a URL pointing at a file available on an ftp or web site. Thus you may extract files directly from their anonymous ftp or WWW locations (e.g., pkg_add ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/pack- ages/NetBSD/i386/3.1_2007Q2/shells/bash-3.2.9.tgz or pkg_add http://www.example.org/packages/screen-4.0.tbz). Note: For ftp trans- fers, if you wish to use passive mode ftp in such transfers, set the variable FTP_PASSIVE_MODE to some value in your environment. Otherwise, the more standard ACTIVE mode may be used. If pkg_add consistently fails to fetch a package from a site known to work, it may be because you have a firewall that demands the usage of passive mode ftp.
TECHNICAL DETAILS
pkg_add extracts each package's ``packing list'' into a special staging directory in /var/tmp (or $PKG_TMPDIR if set) and then runs through the following sequence to fully extract the contents of the package: 1. A check is made to determine if the package or another version of it is already recorded as installed. If it is, installa- tion is terminated if the -u option is not given. If the -u option is given, it's assumed the package should be replaced by the new version instead. Before doing so, all packages that depend on the pkg being upgraded are checked if they also work with the new version. If that test is success- ful, replacing is prepared by moving an existing +REQUIRED_BY file aside (if it exists), and running pkg_delete(1) on the installed package. Installation then proceeds as if the pack- age was not installed, and restores the +REQUIRED_BY file afterwards. 2. A check is made to determine if the package conflicts (from @pkgcfl directives, see pkg_create(1)) with an already recorded as installed package. If it is, installation is ter- minated. 3. All package dependencies (from @pkgdep directives, see pkg_create(1)) are read from the packing list. If any of these required packages are not currently installed, an attempt is made to find and install it; if the missing package cannot be found or installed, the installation is terminated. If the -u option was specified twice, any required packages that are installed, but which have a version number that is considered to be too old, are also updated. The dependant packages are found according to the normal PKG_PATH rules. 4. A search is made for any @option directives which control how the package is added to the system. The only currently imple- mented option is @option preserve, which tells pkg_add to move any existing files out of the way, preserving the previous contents (which are also resurrected on pkg_delete, so caveat emptor). 5. The package build information is extracted from the +BUILD_INFO file and compared against the result of uname(3). If the operating system or architecture of the package differ from that of the host, installation is aborted. This behavior is overridable with the -f flag. 6. The package build information from +BUILD_INFO is then checked for USE_ABI_DEPENDS=NO (or IGNORE_RECOMMENDED). If the pack- age was built with ABI dependency recommendations ignored, a warning will be issued. 7. If the package contains an install script, it is executed with the following arguments: pkg-name The name of the package being installed. PRE-INSTALL Keyword denoting that the script is to perform any actions needed before the package is installed. If the install script exits with a non-zero status code, the installation is terminated. 8. It is used as a guide for moving (or copying, as necessary) files from the staging area into their final locations. 9. If an install script exists for the package, it is executed with the following arguments: pkg_name The name of the package being installed. POST-INSTALL Keyword denoting that the script is to perform any actions needed after the package has been installed. 10. After installation is complete, a copy of the packing list, deinstall script, description, and display files are copied into /var/db/pkg/<pkg-name> for subsequent possible use by pkg_delete(1). Any package dependencies are recorded in the other packages' /var/db/pkg/<other-pkg>/+REQUIRED_BY file (if an alternate package database directory is specified, then it overrides the /var/db/pkg path shown above). 11. If the package is a depoted package, then add it to the default view. 12. The staging area is deleted and the program terminates. 13. Finally, if we were upgrading a package, any +REQUIRED_BY file that was moved aside before upgrading was started is now moved back into place. The install script is called with the environment variable PKG_PREFIX set to the installation prefix (see the -p option above). This allows a package author to write a script that reliably performs some action on the directory where the package is installed, even if the user might change it with the -p flag to pkg_add. The scripts are also called with the PKG_METADATA_DIR environment variable set to the location of the +* meta-data files, and with the PKG_REFCOUNT_DBDIR environment variable set to the location of the package reference counts database directory.
ENVIRONMENT
LOCALBASE This is the location of the viewbase directory in which all the views are managed. The default viewbase directory is /usr/pkg. PKG_DBDIR If the -K flag isn't given, then PKG_DBDIR is the location of the package database directory. The default package database directory is /var/db/pkg. PKG_PATH The value of the PKG_PATH is used if a given package can't be found, it's usually set to /usr/pkgsrc/packages/All. The environment variable should be a series of entries separated by semicolons. Each entry consists of a directory name or URL. The current directory may be indicated implicitly by an empty directory name, or explicitly by a single period. FTP URLs may not end with a slash. PKG_REFCOUNT_DBDIR Location of the package reference counts database directory. The default location is the path to the package database directory with ``.refcount'' appended to the path, e.g. /var/db/pkg.refcount. PKG_TMPDIR Staging directory for installing packages, defaults to /var/tmp. Set to directory with lots of free disk if you run out of space when installing a binary package. PKG_VIEW The default view can be specified in the PKG_VIEW environment variable.
EXAMPLES
In all cases, pkg_add will try to install binary packages listed in dependencies list. You can specify a compiled binary package explicitly on the command line. # pkg_add /usr/pkgsrc/packages/All/tcsh-6.14.00.tgz If you omit the version number, pkg_add will install the latest version available. With -v, pkg_add emits more messages to terminal. # pkg_add -v /usr/pkgsrc/packages/All/unzip You can grab a compiled binary package from remote location by specifying a URL. The URL can be put into an environment variable, PKG_PATH. # pkg_add -v ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/packages/NetBSD/i386/3.1_2007Q2/All/firefox-2.0.0.4.tgz # export PKG_PATH=ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/packages/NetBSD/i386/3.1_2007Q2/All # pkg_add -v firefox Over time, as problems are found in packages, they will be moved from the All subdirectory into the vulnerable subdirectory. If you want to accept vulnerable packages by default (and know what you are doing), you can add the vulnerable directory to your PKG_PATH like this: # export PKG_PATH="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/packages/NetBSD/i386/3.1_2007Q2/All/;ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/packages/NetBSD/i386/3.1_2007Q2/vulnerable/" (The quotes are needed because semicolon (`;') is a shell meta-charac- ter.) If you do this, consider installing and using the security/audit-packages package and running it after every pkg_add.
SEE ALSO
pkg_admin(1), pkg_create(1), pkg_delete(1), pkg_info(1), tar(1), mktemp(3), sysconf(3), pkgsrc(7)
AUTHORS
Jordan Hubbard Initial work and ongoing development. John Kohl NetBSD refinements. Hubert Feyrer NetBSD wildcard dependency processing, pkgdb, upgrading, etc. Thomas Klausner HTTP support.
BUGS
Hard links between files in a distribution are only preserved if either (1) the staging area is on the same file system as the target directory of all the links to the file, or (2) all the links to the file are brack- eted by @cwd directives in the contents file, and and the link names are extracted with a single tar command (not split between invocations due to exec argument-space limitations--this depends on the value returned by sysconf(_SC_ARG_MAX)). Package upgrading needs a lot more work to be really universal. Sure to be others. NetBSD 5.0 August 23, 2007 NetBSD 5.0
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