open(2) - NetBSD Manual Pages

Command: Section: Arch: Collection:  
OPEN(2)                   NetBSD System Calls Manual                   OPEN(2)


NAME
open -- open or create a file for reading or writing
LIBRARY
Standard C Library (libc, -lc)
SYNOPSIS
#include <fcntl.h> int open(const char *path, int flags, mode_t mode);
DESCRIPTION
The file name specified by path is opened for reading and/or writing as specified by the argument flags and the file descriptor returned to the calling process. The flags are specified by or'ing the values listed below. Applications must specify exactly one of the first three values (file access methods): O_RDONLY Open for reading only. O_WRONLY Open for writing only. O_RDWR Open for reading and writing. Any combination of the following may be used: O_NONBLOCK Do not block on open or for data to become available. O_APPEND Append to the file on each write. O_CREAT Create the file if it does not exist, in which case the file is created with mode mode as described in chmod(2) and modified by the process' umask value (see umask(2)). O_TRUNC Truncate size to 0. O_EXCL Error if O_CREAT and the file already exists. O_SHLOCK Atomically obtain a shared lock. O_EXLOCK Atomically obtain an exclusive lock. O_NOFOLLOW If last path element is a symlink, don't follow it. This option is provided for compatibility with other operating systems, but its security value is question- able. O_DSYNC If set, write operations will be performed according to synchronized I/O data integrity completion: each write will wait for the file data to be committed to stable storage. O_SYNC If set, write operations will be performed according to synchronized I/O file integrity completion: each write will wait for both the file data and file status to be committed to stable storage. O_RSYNC If set, read operations will complete at the same level of integrity which is in effect for write operations: if specified together with O_SYNC, each read will wait for the file status to be committed to stable storage. Combining O_RSYNC with O_DSYNC only, or specifying it without any other synchronized I/O integrity completion flag set, has no further effect. O_ALT_IO Alternate I/O semantics will be used for read and write operations on the file descriptor. Alternate semantics are defined by the underlying layers and will not have any alternate effect in most cases. O_NOCTTY If the file is a terminal device, the opened device is not made the controlling terminal for the session. This flag has no effect on NetBSD, since the system defaults to the abovementioned behaviour. The flag is present only for standards conformance. O_DIRECT If set on a regular file, data I/O operations will not buffer the data being transferred in the kernel's cache, but rather transfer the data directly between user memory and the underlying device driver if possi- ble. This flag is advisory; the request may be per- formed in the normal buffered fashion if certain condi- tions are not met, e.g. if the request is not suffi- ciently aligned or if the file is mapped. To meet the alignment requirements for direct I/O, the file offset, the length of the I/O and the address of the buffer in memory must all be multiples of DEV_BSIZE (512 bytes). If the I/O request is made using an interface that supports scatter/gather via struct iovec, each element of the request must meet the above alignment constraints. Opening a file with O_APPEND set causes each write on the file to be appended to the end. If O_TRUNC is specified and the file exists, the file is truncated to zero length. If O_EXCL is set with O_CREAT and the file already exists, open() returns an error. This may be used to implement a simple exclusive access lock- ing mechanism. If O_EXCL is set and the last component of the pathname is a symbolic link, open() will fail even if the symbolic link points to a non-existent name. If the O_NONBLOCK flag is specified, do not wait for the device or file to be ready or available. If the open() call would result in the process being blocked for some reason (e.g., waiting for carrier on a dialup line), open() returns immediately. This flag also has the effect of mak- ing all subsequent I/O on the open file non-blocking. When opening a file, a lock with flock(2) semantics can be obtained by setting O_SHLOCK for a shared lock, or O_EXLOCK for an exclusive lock. If creating a file with O_CREAT, the request for the lock will never fail (provided that the underlying filesystem supports locking). If open() is successful, the file pointer used to mark the current posi- tion within the file is set to the beginning of the file. When a new file is created it is given the group of the directory which contains it. The new descriptor is set to remain open across execve(2) system calls; see close(2) and fcntl(2). The system imposes a limit on the number of file descriptors open simul- taneously by one process. Calling getdtablesize(3) returns the current system limit.
RETURN VALUES
If successful, open() returns a non-negative integer, termed a file descriptor. Otherwise, a value of -1 is returned and errno is set to indicate the error.
ERRORS
The named file is opened unless: [EPERM] The file's flags (see chflags(2)) don't allow the file to be opened. [ENOTDIR] A component of the path prefix is not a directory. [ENAMETOOLONG] A component of a pathname exceeded NAME_MAX charac- ters, or an entire path name exceeded PATH_MAX charac- ters. [ENOENT] O_CREAT is not set and the named file does not exist, or a component of the path name that must exist does not exist. [EACCES] Search permission is denied for a component of the path prefix, the required permissions (for reading and/or writing) are denied for the given flags, or O_CREAT is specified, the file does not exist, and the directory in which it is to be created does not permit writing. [ELOOP] Too many symbolic links were encountered in translat- ing the pathname. [EISDIR] The named file is a directory, and the arguments spec- ify it is to be opened for writing. [EROFS] The named file resides on a read-only file system, and the file is to be modified. [EMFILE] The process has already reached its limit for open file descriptors. [ENFILE] The system file table is full. [ENXIO] The named file is a character special or block special file, and the device associated with this special file does not exist, or the named file is a FIFO, O_NONBLOCK and O_WRONLY is set and no process has the file open for reading. [EINTR] The open() operation was interrupted by a signal. [EOPNOTSUPP] O_SHLOCK or O_EXLOCK is specified but the underlying filesystem does not support locking. [ENOSPC] O_CREAT is specified, the file does not exist, and the directory in which the entry for the new file is being placed cannot be extended because there is no space left on the file system containing the directory. [ENOSPC] O_CREAT is specified, the file does not exist, and there are no free inodes on the file system on which the file is being created. [EDQUOT] O_CREAT is specified, the file does not exist, and the directory in which the entry for the new file is being placed cannot be extended because the user's quota of disk blocks on the file system containing the direc- tory has been exhausted. [EDQUOT] O_CREAT is specified, the file does not exist, and the user's quota of inodes on the file system on which the file is being created has been exhausted. [EIO] An I/O error occurred while making the directory entry or allocating the inode for O_CREAT. [ETXTBSY] The file is a pure procedure (shared text) file that is being executed and the open() call requests write access. [EFAULT] path points outside the process's allocated address space. [EEXIST] O_CREAT and O_EXCL were specified and the file exists. [EOPNOTSUPP] An attempt was made to open a socket (not currently implemented).
SEE ALSO
chmod(2), close(2), dup(2), lseek(2), read(2), umask(2), write(2), getdtablesize(3)
STANDARDS
The open() function conforms to ISO/IEC 9945-1:1990 (``POSIX.1''). The flags values O_DSYNC, O_SYNC and O_RSYNC are extensions defined in IEEE Std 1003.1b-1993 (``POSIX.1''). The O_SHLOCK, O_EXLOCK, and O_NOFOLLOW flags are non-standard extensions and should not be used if portability is of concern.
HISTORY
An open() function call appeared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX. NetBSD 5.0 October 23, 2006 NetBSD 5.0
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