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MTREE(8) NetBSD System Manager's Manual MTREE(8)
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mtree -- map a directory hierarchy
mtree [-cCdDelLMPruUWx] [-i | -m] [-f spec] [-p path] [-k keywords]
[-K keywords] [-R keywords] [-E tags] [-I tags] [-N dbdir]
[-s seed] [-X exclude-file]
The mtree utility compares the file hierarchy rooted in the current
directory against a specification read from the standard input. Messages
are written to the standard output for any files whose characteristics do
not match the specification, or which are missing from either the file
hierarchy or the specification.
The options are as follows:
-c Print a specification for the file hierarchy to the standard out-
-d Ignore everything except directory type files.
-C Print (`dump') the specification as provided by -f spec in a format
that's easier to parse with various tools. The full path name is
always printed as the first field, and -k, -K, and -R can be used
to control which other keywords are printed, and -E and -I can be
used to control which files are printed.
-D As per -C, except that the path name is always printed as the last
field instead of the first.
Add the comma separated tags to the ``exclusion'' list. Non-direc-
tories with tags which are in the exclusion list are not printed
-e Don't complain about files that are in the file hierarchy, but not
in the specification.
Read the specification from file, instead of from the standard
Add the comma separated tags to the ``inclusion'' list. Non-direc-
tories with tags which are in the inclusion list are printed with
-D. If no inclusion list is provided, the default is to display
-i If specified, set the schg and/or sappnd flags.
Add the specified (whitespace or comma separated) keywords to the
current set of keywords. If `all' is specified, add all of the
Use the type keyword plus the specified (whitespace or comma sepa-
rated) keywords instead of the current set of keywords. If `all'
is specified, use all of the other keywords. If the type keyword
is not desired, suppress it with -R type.
-l Do ``loose'' permissions checks, in which more stringent permis-
sions will match less stringent ones. For example, a file marked
mode 0444 will pass a check for mode 0644. ``Loose'' checks apply
only to read, write and execute permissions -- in particular, if
other bits like the sticky bit or suid/sgid bits are set either in
the specification or the file, exact checking will be performed.
This flag may not be set at the same time as the -u or -U flags.
-L Follow all symbolic links in the file hierarchy.
-m If the schg and/or sappnd flags are specified, reset these flags.
Note that this is only possible with securelevel less than 1 (i.e.
in single user mode or while the system is running in insecure
mode). See init(8) for information on security levels.
-M Permit merging of specification entries with different types, with
the last entry take precedence.
Use the user database text file master.passwd and group database
text file group from dbdir, rather than using the results from the
system's getpwnam(3) and getgrnam(3) (and related) library calls.
Use the file hierarchy rooted in path, instead of the current
-P Don't follow symbolic links in the file hierarchy, instead consider
the symbolic link itself in any comparisons. This is the default.
-r Remove any files in the file hierarchy that are not described in
Remove the specified (whitespace or comma separated) keywords from
the current set of keywords. If `all' is specified, remove all of
the other keywords.
Display a single checksum to the standard error output that repre-
sents all of the files for which the keyword cksum was specified.
The checksum is seeded with the specified value.
-u Modify the owner, group, permissions, and flags of existing files,
the device type of devices, and symbolic link targets, to match the
specification. Create any missing directories, devices or symbolic
links. User, group, and permissions must all be specified for
missing directories to be created. Note that unless the -i option
is given, the schg and sappnd flags will not be set, even if speci-
fied. If -m is given, these flags will be reset. Exit with a sta-
tus of 0 on success, 2 if the file hierarchy did not match the
specification, and 1 if any other error occurred.
-U Same as -u except that a mismatch is not considered to be an error
if it was corrected.
-W Don't attempt to set various file attributes such as the ownership,
mode, flags, or time when creating new directories or changing
existing entries. This option will be most useful when used in
conjunction with -u or -U.
-x Don't descend below mount points in the file hierarchy.
The specified file contains fnmatch(3) patterns matching files to
be excluded from the specification, one to a line. If the pattern
contains a `/' character, it will be matched against entire path-
names (relative to the starting directory); otherwise, it will be
matched against basenames only. Comments are permitted in the
Specifications are mostly composed of ``keywords'', i.e. strings that
that specify values relating to files. No keywords have default values,
and if a keyword has no value set, no checks based on it are performed.
Currently supported keywords are as follows:
cksum The checksum of the file using the default algorithm specified by
the cksum(1) utility.
device The device number to use for block or char file types. The argu-
ment must be one of the following forms:
A device with major and minor fields, for an operating sys-
tem specified with format. See below for valid formats.
A device with major, unit, and subunit fields, for an oper-
ating system specified with format. (Currently this is
only supported by the bsdos format.)
Opaque number (as stored on the file system).
The following values for format are recognized: native, 386bsd,
4bsd, bsdos, freebsd, hpux, isc, linux, netbsd, osf1, sco,
solaris, sunos, svr3, svr4, and ultrix.
See mknod(8) for more details.
flags The file flags as a symbolic name. See chflags(1) for informa-
tion on these names. If no flags are to be set the string `none'
may be used to override the current default. Note that the schg
and sappnd flags are treated specially (see the -i and -m
ignore Ignore any file hierarchy below this file.
gid The file group as a numeric value.
gname The file group as a symbolic name.
link The file the symbolic link is expected to reference.
md5 The MD5 cryptographic message digest of the file.
Synonym for md5.
mode The current file's permissions as a numeric (octal) or symbolic
nlink The number of hard links the file is expected to have.
The file is optional; don't complain about the file if it's not
in the file hierarchy.
rmd160 The RMD-160 cryptographic message digest of the file.
Synonym for rmd160.
sha1 The SHA-1 cryptographic message digest of the file.
Synonym for sha1.
sha256 The 256-bits SHA-2 cryptographic message digest of the file.
Synonym for sha256.
sha384 The 384-bits SHA-2 cryptographic message digest of the file.
Synonym for sha384.
sha512 The 512-bits SHA-2 cryptographic message digest of the file.
Synonym for sha512.
size The size, in bytes, of the file.
tags Comma delimited tags to be matched with -E and -I. These may be
specified without leading or trailing commas, but will be stored
internally with them.
time The last modification time of the file.
type The type of the file; may be set to any one of the following:
block block special device
char character special device
file regular file
link symbolic link
uid The file owner as a numeric value.
uname The file owner as a symbolic name.
The default set of keywords are flags, gid, link, mode, nlink, size,
time, type, and uid.
There are four types of lines in a specification:
1. Set global values for a keyword. This consists of the string `/set'
followed by whitespace, followed by sets of keyword/value pairs,
separated by whitespace. Keyword/value pairs consist of a keyword,
followed by an equals sign (`='), followed by a value, without
whitespace characters. Once a keyword has been set, its value
remains unchanged until either reset or unset.
2. Unset global values for a keyword. This consists of the string
`/unset', followed by whitespace, followed by one or more keywords,
separated by whitespace. If `all' is specified, unset all of the
3. A file specification, consisting of a path name, followed by white-
space, followed by zero or more whitespace separated keyword/value
The path name may be preceded by whitespace characters. The path
name may contain any of the standard path name matching characters
(`[', `]', `?' or `*'), in which case files in the hierarchy will be
associated with the first pattern that they match. mtree uses
strsvis(3) (in VIS_CSTYLE format) to encode path names containing
non-printable characters. Whitespace characters are encoded as `\s'
(space), `\t' (tab), and `\n' (new line). `#' characters in path
names are escaped by a preceding backslash `\' to distinguish them
Each of the keyword/value pairs consist of a keyword, followed by an
equals sign (`='), followed by the keyword's value, without white-
space characters. These values override, without changing, the
global value of the corresponding keyword.
The first path name entry listed must be a directory named `.', as
this ensures that intermixing full and relative path names will work
consistently and correctly. Multiple entries for a directory named
`.' are permitted; the settings for the last such entry override
those of the existing entry.
A path name that contains a slash (`/') that is not the first char-
acter will be treated as a full path (relative to the root of the
tree). All parent directories referenced in the path name must
exist. The current directory path used by relative path names will
be updated appropriately. Multiple entries for the same full path
are permitted if the types are the same (unless -M is given, and
then the types may differ); in this case the settings for the last
entry take precedence.
A path name that does not contain a slash will be treated as a rela-
tive path. Specifying a directory will cause subsequent files to be
searched for in that directory hierarchy.
4. A line containing only the string `..' which causes the current
directory path (used by relative paths) to ascend one level.
Empty lines and lines whose first non-whitespace character is a hash mark
(`#') are ignored.
The mtree utility exits with a status of 0 on success, 1 if any error
occurred, and 2 if the file hierarchy did not match the specification.
/etc/mtree system specification directory
To detect system binaries that have been ``trojan horsed'', it is recom-
mended that mtree be run on the file systems, and a copy of the results
stored on a different machine, or, at least, in encrypted form. The seed
for the -s option should not be an obvious value and the final checksum
should not be stored on-line under any circumstances! Then, periodi-
cally, mtree should be run against the on-line specifications and the
final checksum compared with the previous value. While it is possible
for the bad guys to change the on-line specifications to conform to their
modified binaries, it shouldn't be possible for them to make it produce
the same final checksum value. If the final checksum value changes, the
off-line copies of the specification can be used to detect which of the
binaries have actually been modified.
The -d and -u options can be used in combination to create directory
hierarchies for distributions and other such things.
chflags(1), chgrp(1), chmod(1), cksum(1), stat(2), fnmatch(3), fts(3),
strsvis(3), chown(8), mknod(8)
The mtree utility appeared in 4.3BSD-Reno. The optional keyword appeared
in NetBSD 1.2. The -U flag appeared in NetBSD 1.3. The flags and md5
keywords, and -i and -m flags appeared in NetBSD 1.4. The device,
rmd160, sha1, tags, and all keywords, -D, -E, -I, -l, -L, -N, -P, -R, -W,
and -X flags, and support for full paths appeared in NetBSD 1.6. The
sha256, sha384, and sha512 keywords appeared in NetBSD 3.0.
NetBSD 4.0 September 12, 2006 NetBSD 4.0