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WSKBD(4) NetBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual WSKBD(4)
Powered by man-cgi (2021-06-01).
Maintained for NetBSD
by Kimmo Suominen.
Based on man-cgi by Panagiotis Christias.
wskbd -- generic keyboard support in wscons
wskbd* at pckbd? console ? mux 1
(standard PC keyboard)
wskbd* at ukbd? console ? mux 1
wskbd* at lkkbd? console ? mux 1
(DEC LK200/400 serial keyboard)
wskbd0 at akbd? console ? mux 1
(Apple ADB keyboard)
wskbd0 at nextkbd? console ? mux 1
wskbd* at vrkiu? console ? mux 1
(NEC VR4000 series HPC keyboard)
wskbd* at skbd? console ? mux 1
(keyboard of misc hpcmips handheld devices)
wskbd* at btkbd? console ? mux 1
The wskbd driver handles common tasks for keyboards within the wscons(4)
framework. It is attached to the hardware specific keyboard drivers and
provides their connection to ``wsdisplay'' devices and a character device
The common keyboard support consists of:
· Mapping from keycodes (defined by the specific keyboard driver) to
keysyms (hardware independent, defined in <dev/wscons/wsksymdef.h>).
· Handling of ``compose'' sequences. Characters commonly not present
as separate key on keyboards can be generated after either a special
``compose'' key is pressed or a ``dead accent'' character is used.
· Certain translations, like turning an ALT modifier into an ESC pre-
· Automatic key repetition (``typematic'').
· Parameter handling for ``keyboard bells''.
· Generation of ``keyboard events'' for use by X servers.
The wskbd driver provides a number of ioctl functions to control key maps
and other parameters. These functions are accessible though the associ-
ated wsdisplay(4) device as well. A complete list is in
<dev/wscons/wsconsio.h>. The wsconsctl(8) utility allows to access key
maps and other variables.
The console locator in the configuration line refers to the device's use
as input part of the operating system console. A device specification
containing a positive value here will only match if the device is in use
as system console. (The console device selection in early system startup
is not influenced.) This way, the console device can be connected to a
known wskbd device instance.
The following encodings are supported. Device drivers for legacy key-
board interfaces may only support a subset of these. However, generally,
all encodings are supported by pckbd(4) and ukbd(4).
wsconsctl define language
user KB_USER User-defined
us KB_US English/US keyboard mapping (default)
uk KB_UK English/UK keyboard mapping
be KB_BE Belgian
br KB_BR Brazilian with ``dead accents''
cf KB_CF Canadian French
cz KB_CZ Czech (QWERTY)
dk KB_DK Danish with ``dead accents''
nl KB_NL Dutch
ee KB_EE Estonian with ``dead accents''
fi KB_FI Finnish
fr KB_FR French
de KB_DE German QWERTZ with ``dead accents''
neo KB_NEO German Neo 2 layout
gr KB_GR Greek
hu KB_HU Hungarian
is KB_IS Icelandic with ``dead accents''
it KB_IT Italian
jp KB_JP Japanese
la KB_LA Latin American Spanish
no KB_NO Norwegian with ``dead accents''
pl KB_PL Polish
pt KB_PT Portuguese
ru KB_RU Russian
es KB_ES Spanish
sv KB_SV Swedish with ``dead accents''
sf KB_SF Swiss French
sg KB_SG Swiss German
tr KB_TR Turkish (QWERTY) with ``dead accents''
ua KB_UA Ukrainian
us.declk KB_US|KB_DECLK English/US mapping for DEC LK400-style
keyboards with PC keyboard interface
us.dvorak KB_US|KB_DVORAK English/US keyboard with ``Dvorak''
us.colemak KB_US|KB_COLEMAK English/US keyboard with ``Colemak''
The ``.nodead'' suffix (KB_NODEAD flag) can be applied to layouts with
``dead accents'' to switch them off.
The KB_US, KB_UK, KB_FR, KB_JP and KB_US|KB_DVORAK mappings can be modi-
fied to swap the left <Ctrl> and the <CapsLock> keys by the
KB_SWAPCTRLCAPS variant bit or the ``.swapctrlcaps'' suffix.
The ``.metaesc'' suffix (KB_METAESC flag) option can be applied to any
layout. If set, keys pressed together with the ALT modifier are prefixed
by an ESC character. (Standard behaviour is to add 128 to the ASCII
The following ioctl(2) calls are provided by the wskbd driver or by
devices which use it. Their definitions are found in
Get the keyboard type.
Get the keyboard mode, 0 means translated through keyboard
map, 1 means raw.
Set the keyboard mode.
WSKBDIO_COMPLEXBELL, WSKBDIO_SETBELL, WSKBDIO_GETBELL,
WSKBDIO_SETDEFAULTBELL, WSKBDIO_GETDEFAULTBELL (struct
Get and set keyboard bell settings.
WSKBDIO_SETKEYREPEAT, WSKBDIO_GETKEYREPEAT, WSKBDIO_SETDEFAULTKEYREPEAT,
WSKBDIO_GETDEFAULTKEYREPEAT (struct wskbd_keyrepeat_data)
Get and set keyboard autorepeat settings.
WSKBDIO_SETLEDS, WSKBDIO_GETLEDS (int)
Get and set keyboard LED settings.
WSKBDIO_GETMAP, WSKBDIO_SETMAP (struct wskbd_map_data)
Get and set keyboard keymapping settings.
WSKBDIO_GETENCODING, WSKBDIO_SETENCODING (kbd_t)
Get and set keyboard encoding settings.
WSKBDIO_GETKEYCLICK, WSKBDIO_SETKEYCLICK (int)
Get and set keyboard keyclick settings.
Set the wscons_event protocol version. The default is 0
for binary compatibility. The latest version is always
available as WSKBDIO_EVENT_VERSION, and is currently 1.
All new code should use a call similar to the below to
ensure the correct version is returned.
int ver = WSKBDIO_EVENT_VERSION;
if (ioctl(fd, WSKBDIO_SETVERSION, &ver) == -1)
err(EXIT_FAILURE, "cannot set version");
btkbd(4), pckbd(4), ukbd(4), wscons(4), wsmux(4), wsconsctl(8), wskbd(9)
The list of builtin mappings doesn't follow any logic. It grew as people
submitted what they needed.
NetBSD 10.99 September 18, 2021 NetBSD 10.99