versioningsyscalls(9) - NetBSD Manual Pages

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versioningsyscalls -- guide on versioning syscalls
NetBSD has the ability to change the ABI of a syscall whilst retaining backwards compatibility with existing code. This means that existing code keeps working the same way as before, and new code can use new fea- tures and/or functionality. In the past this has allowed dev_t to move from 16 bits to 32 bits, ino_t and time_t to move from 32 bits to 64 bits, and adding fields to struct kevent without disturbing existing binaries. To achieve this both kernel and userland changes are required. In the kernel, a new syscall is added with a new ABI, and the old syscall is retained and moved to a new location that holds the compatibility syscalls (src/sys/compat). Kernels can be compiled with or without back- wards compatibility syscalls. See the COMPAT_XX options in options(4). In userland, the original syscall stub is moved into src/lib/libc/compat retaining the same symbol name and ABI. The new stub is added to libc, and in the header file the syscall symbol is made to point to the new name with the new ABI. This is done via symbol renaming instead of ELF versioned symbols for historical reasons. NetBSD has retained binary compatibility with most syscalls since NetBSD 0.9 with the exception of Scheduler Activation syscalls which are not being emulated because of the cost and safety of doing so. To avoid confusion, the following words are used to disambiguate which version of the system call is being described. old Any previous versions of the syscall, which have already been versioned and superseded by the current version of the syscall. current The version of the syscall currently in use. next The version of the syscall that will become standard in the next release. Additionally, XYZ always represents the last NetBSD release where the current version of the system call is the default, multiplied by ten and retaining a leading zero. For example NetBSD 0.9 has COMPAT_09 whereas NetBSD 10.0 has COMPAT_100.
This section describes what needs to be modified to add the new version of the syscall. It assumes the current version of the syscall is my_syscall(struct my_struct *ms) and that my_struct will be versioned. If not versioning a struct, passages that mention my_struct can be ignored. Versioning structs To version struct my_struct, first make a copy of my_struct renamed to my_structXYZ in an equivalent header in sys/compat/sys. After that, you can freely modify my_struct as desired. Versioning the entry point The stub for the next version of the syscall will be __my_syscallXYZ(), and will have entry point sys___my_syscallXYZ(). Modifying syscalls.conf sys/kern/syscalls.conf may need to be modified to contain compat_XYZ in the compatopts variable. Modifying syscalls.master First, add the next syscall to sys/kern/syscalls.master keeping my_syscall() as the name, and set the (optional) compat field of the dec- laration to XYZ. Next, modify the current version of the syscall, and replace the type field (usually just STD) with COMPAT_XYZ MODULAR compat_XYZ. The keyword MODULAR indicates that the system call can be part of a ker- nel module. Even if the system call was not part of a module before, now it will be part of the COMPAT_XYZ module. Finally, if applicable, replace the types of the current and old versions of the syscall with the compat type. Overall, the final diff should look like - 123 STD { int|sys||my_syscall(struct my_struct *ms); } + 123 COMPAT_XYZ MODULAR compat_XYZ { int|sys||my_syscall(struct my_structXYZ *ms); } ... + 456 STD { int|sys|XYZ|my_syscall(struct my_struct *ms); } Modifying Makefile.rump If the current syscall is rump, sys/rump/Makefile.rump must contain XYZ in the RUMP_NBCOMPAT variable. Regenerating the system calls If versioning structs, then modify sys/kern/ by adding and entry for struct my_structXYZ type to uncompattypes. The uncompattypes map is used in rump(7) system call table generation, to map from the versioned types to the original names since rump(7) wants to have a non-versioned copy of the system call table. Then regenerate the syscall tables in the usual way, first by running sys/kern/, then if the system call is rump, doing a build in sys/rump and then running sys/rump/ passing it the path to the result of the build you just did as its first argument.
This section covers maintaining compatibility at the kernel level, by adding an entry point for the current syscall in an appropriate compat module. For the purposes of this section, we assume the current syscall has entry point sys_my_syscall() and lives inside sys/kern/my_file.c. Creating the compat current syscall The compat version of the current syscall has entry point compat_XYZ_sys_my_syscall(), and should be implemented in sys/compat/common/my_file_XYZ.c with the same semantics as the current syscall. Often this involves translating the arguments to the next syscall, and then calling that syscall's entry point. Adding it to the compat module sys/compat/common/my_file_XYZ.c must contain an array of struct syscall_package that declares the mapping between syscall number and entry point, terminating in a zero element (see sample diff below). Additionally, sys/compat/common/my_file_XYZ.c must contain two functions, my_file_XYZ_init() and my_file_XYZ_fini() that are used to initial- ize/clean up anything related to this syscall. At the minimum they must make calls to syscall_establish() and syscall_disestablish() respec- tively, adding and removing the syscalls. The stubs for these functions should be located in sys/compat/common/compat_mod.h. Overall, sys/compat/common/my_file_XYZ.c must at the minimum contain static const struct syscall_package my_file_XYZ_syscalls[] = { { SYS_compat_XYZ_my_syscall, 0, (sy_call_t *)compat_XYZ_sys_my_syscall }, { 0, 0, NULL }, }; int compat_XYZ_my_syscall(...) { /* Compat implementation goes here. */ } int my_file_XYZ_init(void) { return syscall_establish(NULL, my_file_XYZ_syscalls); } int my_file_XYZ_fini(void) { return syscall_disestablish(NULL, my_file_XYZ_syscalls); } Finally, sys/compat/common/compat_XYZ_mod.c needs to be modified to have its compat_XYZ_init() and compat_XYZ_fini() functions call my_file_XYZ_init() and my_file_XYZ_fini() respectively. Modifying old compat syscalls If the current syscall has already been versioned, you might need to mod- ify the old compat syscalls in sys/compat/common to either use the next syscall or the current compat syscall. Note that compat code can be made to depend on compat code for more recent releases.
With the exception of the libraries described below, making the rest of userland work will just involve recompiling, and perhaps changing a con- stant or a #define. libc A userland version of any old and current versions of the syscall must be implemented. For the current syscall with stub my_syscall(struct my_struct *ms) in sys/sys/my_header.h, an implementa- tion of my_syscall() must be written in lib/libc/compat/sys/compat_my_syscall.c. Additionally, a call to __warn_references() must be added in lib/libc/compat/sys/compat_my_syscall.c to warn of any uses of the compat syscall and mention how to use the next version of the syscall. In almost all cases the instructions on how to use the next version of the syscall will be ``include <sys/my_header.h> to generate correct reference''. Overall, lib/libc/compat/sys/compat_my_syscall.c must at the minimum include #include <sys/compat/my_header.h> __warn_references(my_syscall, "warning: reference to compatibility my_syscall();" " message on how to use the next my_syscall()"); int my_syscall() { /* Compat implementation goes here. */ } NetBSD 10.99 June 23, 2023 NetBSD 10.99
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