rnd(9) - NetBSD Manual Pages

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RND(9)                 NetBSD Kernel Developer's Manual                 RND(9)


NAME
RND, rnd_attach_source, rnd_detach_source, rnd_add_data, rnd_add_data_sync, rnd_add_uint32 -- functions to make a device available for entropy collection
SYNOPSIS
#include <sys/rndsource.h> typedef struct krndsource krndsource_t; void rndsource_setcb(krndsource_t *rnd_source, void (*callback)(size_t, void *), void *cookie); void rnd_attach_source(krndsource_t *rnd_source, char *devname, uint32_t source_type, uint32_t flags); void rnd_detach_source(krndsource_t *rnd_source); void rnd_add_data(krndsource_t *rnd_source, void *data, uint32_t len, uint32_t entropy); void rnd_add_data_sync(krndsource_t *rnd_source, void *data, uint32_t len, uint32_t entropy); void rnd_add_uint32(krndsource_t *rnd_source, uint32_t datum);
DESCRIPTION
The RND functions enable drivers to collect samples of physical observa- tions, such as network packet timings or hardware random number generator outputs, into a kernel entropy pool to derive key material for cprng(9) and rnd(4) (/dev/random, /dev/urandom). Usage model: 1. Allocate and zero a struct krndsource object before using the RND functions. 2. Optionally, set a callback with rndsource_setcb() if appropriate, e.g. for an on-demand hardware random number generator. 3. Attach the random source with rnd_attach_source(). 4. Enter data with rnd_add_data() or rnd_add_uint32(), or, if in the callback, rnd_add_data_sync(). 5. When the driver is done, detach it with rnd_detach_source(). The following types of random sources are defined: RND_TYPE_DISK Disk devices, typically sampling seek timings. RND_TYPE_ENV Environmental sensors. RND_TYPE_POWER Power sensors and timing of power-related events. RND_TYPE_NET Network interfaces, typically sampling packet tim- ings. By default, sample from network interfaces are ignored, for hysterical raisins. RND_TYPE_RNG Hardware random number generators. RND_TYPE_SKEW Skew between clocks. RND_TYPE_TAPE Tape devices, typically sampling I/O timings. RND_TYPE_TTY Tty devices, typically sampling interrupt timings. RND_TYPE_VM Virtual memory fault timings. RND_TYPE_UNKNOWN Unknown sources, or sources not otherwise classi- fied.
FUNCTIONS
rndsource_setcb(rnd_source, callback, cookie) Sets a callback to be invoked when the entropy pool is hungry to draw data from this source on demand. Optional; if used, must be used before rnd_attach_source(), and the caller must pass RND_FLAG_HASCB to rnd_attach_source(). The callback is invoked as callback(nbytes, cookie), where nbytes is the number of bytes requested for the entropy pool, and cookie is the cookie that was passed to rndsource_setcb(). The callback normally does one of two things: - Sends a request to a hardware device for entropy and returns. The hardware will later return data asynchronously by an inter- rupt, and the callback will use rnd_add_data() or rnd_add_uint32() to add the data to the pool. - Synchronously gathers entropy from hardware -- for example, by a CPU instruction like Intel RDSEED. In this case, in order to add data to the pool before returning, the callback must use rnd_add_data_sync(), not rnd_add_data() or rnd_add_uint32(). rnd_attach_source(rnd_source, devname, type, flags) Makes rnd_source available for entropy collection. Must be called before the source struct pointed to by rnd_source is used in any of the following functions. If a callback was specified with rndsource_setcb(), the kernel may invoke it at any time after rnd_attach_source() until rnd_detach_source(), so the callback must be ready to be invoked before calling rnd_attach_source(). The devname is exposed via rnd(4) and rndctl(8). The type must be one of the RND_TYPE_* constants above. The flags are the bitwise- or of any of the following constants: RND_FLAG_HASCB The random source has a callback, which must have been set with rndsource_setcb(). RND_FLAG_COLLECT_TIME Enter the timing of each rnd_add_*() call into the entropy pool. If not set, at most only the data arguments to rnd_add_*() will be entered. RND_FLAG_COLLECT_VALUE Enter the data arguments passed to the rnd_add_*() functions into the pool. If not set, the data will be ignored; at most the timing of the sample will be entered. RND_FLAG_DEFAULT Equivalent to RND_FLAG_COLLECT_TIME | RND_FLAG_COLLECT_VALUE. RND_FLAG_ESTIMATE_TIME, RND_FLAG_ESTIMATE_VALUE Legacy options no longer used. rnd_detach_source(rnd_source) Disconnects rnd_source from entropy collection. The kernel will cease to invoke the callback, if any, and the caller must not use rnd_source with any of the rnd_add_*() functions after rnd_detach_source(). The caller may release the memory for rnd_source afterward. rnd_add_data(rnd_source, data, len, entropy) Enters len bytes at data into the entropy pool, if RND_FLAG_COLLECT_VALUE was specified for rnd_source, and a time- stamp, if RND_FLAG_COLLECT_TIME was specified. The argument entropy provides a conservative estimate for the num- ber of bits of entropy in the physical process that generated the data, given all the past samples. Drivers for devices for which this is not known should pass zero; typically only drivers for hardware random number generators pass nonzero values. Hardware random number generator drivers should perform on-line self-tests before advertising nonzero entropy for samples. rnd_add_data() must not be used during a callback as set with rndsource_setcb(); use rnd_add_data_sync() instead. rnd_add_data_sync(rnd_source, data, len, entropy) Like rnd_add_data(), but may be used in a callback as set with rndsource_setcb(). rnd_add_uint32(rnd_source, datum) Equivalent to rnd_add_data(rnd_source, &datum, 4, 0). rnd_add_uint32() must not be used during a callback as set with rndsource_setcb(); use rnd_add_data_sync() instead.
FILES
These functions are declared in src/sys/sys/rndsource.h and defined in src/sys/kern/kern_entropy.c.
EXAMPLES
struct xyz_softc { ... struct krndsource sc_rndsource; }; static void xyz_attach(device_t parent, device_t self, void *aux) { struct xyz_softc *sc = device_private(self); ... rndsource_setcb(&sc->sc_rndsource, xyz_get, sc); rnd_attach_source(&sc->sc_rndsource, device_xname(self), RND_TYPE_RNG, RND_FLAG_DEFAULT); } static int xyz_detach(device_t self, int flags) { ... rnd_detach_source(&sc->sc_rndsource); ... return 0; } static void xyz_get(size_t nbytes, void *cookie) { struct xyz_softc *sc = cookie; uint32_t v; unsigned timo = 10; while (nbytes) { while (bus_space_read_4(sc->sc_bst, sc->sc_bsh, XYZ_RNGREADY) == 0) { if (--timo == 0) return; DELAY(10); } v = bus_space_read_4(sc->sc_bst, sc->sc_bsh, XYZ_RNGDATUM); /* data sheet sez 18 bits entropy in 32-bit sample */ rnd_add_data_sync(&sc->sc_rndsource, &v, sizeof v, 18); nbytes -= 18/NBBY; } } static void xyz_intr(void *cookie) { struct xyz_softc *sc = cookie; uint32_t isr; isr = bus_space_read_4(sc->sc_bst, sc->sc_bsh, XYZ_ISR); bus_space_write_4(sc->sc_bst, sc->sc_bsh, XYZ_ISR, isr); rnd_add_uint32(&sc->sc_rndsource, isr); ... }
SEE ALSO
rnd(4), rndctl(8), cprng(9)
HISTORY
The random device was introduced in NetBSD 1.3. It was substantially rewritten in NetBSD 6.0, and again in NetBSD 10.0.
AUTHORS
This implementation was written by Taylor R Campbell <riastradh@NetBSD.org>. NetBSD 9.99 April 25, 2020 NetBSD 9.99
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