membar_ops(3) - NetBSD Manual Pages

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MEMBAR_OPS(3)           NetBSD Library Functions Manual          MEMBAR_OPS(3)


NAME
membar_ops, membar_enter, membar_exit, membar_producer, membar_consumer, membar_datadep_consumer, membar_sync -- memory ordering barriers
SYNOPSIS
#include <sys/atomic.h> void membar_enter(void); void membar_exit(void); void membar_producer(void); void membar_consumer(void); void membar_datadep_consumer(void); void membar_sync(void);
DESCRIPTION
The membar_ops family of functions prevent reordering of memory opera- tions, as needed for synchronization in multiprocessor execution environ- ments that have relaxed load and store order. In general, memory barriers must come in pairs -- a barrier on one CPU, such as membar_exit(), must pair with a barrier on another CPU, such as membar_enter(), in order to synchronize anything between the two CPUs. Code using membar_ops should generally be annotated with comments identi- fying how they are paired. membar_ops affect only operations on regular memory, not on device mem- ory; see bus_space(9) and bus_dma(9) for machine-independent interfaces to handling device memory and DMA operations for device drivers. Unlike C11, all memory operations -- that is, all loads and stores on regular memory -- are affected by membar_ops, not just C11 atomic opera- tions on _Atomic-qualified objects. membar_enter() Any store preceding membar_enter() will happen before all memory operations following it. An atomic read/modify/write operation (atomic_ops(3)) followed by a membar_enter() implies a load-acquire operation in the language of C11. WARNING: A load followed by membar_enter() does not imply a load-acquire operation, even though membar_exit() followed by a store implies a store-release operation; the symmetry of these names and asymmetry of the semantics is a historical mistake. In the NetBSD kernel, you can use atomic_load_acquire(9) for a load-acquire operation without any atomic read/modify/write. membar_enter() is typically used in code that implements locking primitives to ensure that a lock protects its data, and is typi- cally paired with membar_exit(); see below for an example. membar_exit() All memory operations preceding membar_exit() will happen before any store that follows it. A membar_exit() followed by a store implies a store-release opera- tion in the language of C11. For a regular store, rather than an atomic read/modify/write store, you should use atomic_store_release(9) instead of membar_exit() followed by the store. membar_exit() is typically used in code that implements locking primitives to ensure that a lock protects its data, and is typi- cally paired with membar_enter(). For example: /* thread A */ obj->state.mumblefrotz = 42; KASSERT(valid(&obj->state)); membar_exit(); obj->lock = 0; /* thread B */ if (atomic_cas_uint(&obj->lock, 0, 1) != 0) return; membar_enter(); KASSERT(valid(&obj->state)); obj->state.mumblefrotz--; In this example, if the atomic_cas_uint() operation in thread B witnesses the store obj->lock = 0 from thread A, then everything in thread A before the membar_exit() is guaranteed to happen before everything in thread B after the membar_enter(), as if the machine had sequentially executed: obj->state.mumblefrotz = 42; /* from thread A */ KASSERT(valid(&obj->state)); ... KASSERT(valid(&obj->state)); /* from thread B */ obj->state.mumblefrotz--; membar_exit() followed by a store, serving as a store-release oper- ation, may also be paired with a subsequent load followed by membar_sync(), serving as the corresponding load-acquire operation. However, you should use atomic_store_release(9) and atomic_load_acquire(9) instead in that situation, unless the store is an atomic read/modify/write which requires a separate membar_exit(). membar_producer() All stores preceding membar_producer() will happen before any stores following it. membar_producer() has no analogue in C11. membar_producer() is typically used in code that produces data for read-only consumers which use membar_consumer(), such as `seqlocked' snapshots of statistics; see below for an example. membar_consumer() All loads preceding membar_consumer() will complete before any loads after it. membar_consumer() has no analogue in C11. membar_consumer() is typically used in code that reads data from producers which use membar_producer(), such as `seqlocked' snap- shots of statistics. For example: struct { /* version number and in-progress bit */ unsigned seq; /* read-only statistics, too large for atomic load */ unsigned foo; int bar; uint64_t baz; } stats; /* producer (must be serialized, e.g. with mutex(9)) */ stats->seq |= 1; /* mark update in progress */ membar_producer(); stats->foo = count_foo(); stats->bar = measure_bar(); stats->baz = enumerate_baz(); membar_producer(); stats->seq++; /* bump version number */ /* consumer (in parallel w/ producer, other consumers) */ restart: while ((seq = stats->seq) & 1) /* wait for update */ SPINLOCK_BACKOFF_HOOK; membar_consumer(); foo = stats->foo; /* read out a candidate snapshot */ bar = stats->bar; baz = stats->baz; membar_consumer(); if (seq != stats->seq) /* try again if version changed */ goto restart; membar_datadep_consumer() Same as membar_consumer(), but limited to loads of addresses depen- dent on prior loads, or `data-dependent' loads: int **pp, *p, v; p = *pp; membar_datadep_consumer(); v = *p; consume(v); membar_datadep_consumer() is typically paired with membar_exit() by code that initializes an object before publishing it. However, you should use atomic_store_release(9) and atomic_load_consume(9) instead, to avoid obscure edge cases in case the consumer is not read-only. membar_datadep_consumer() does not guarantee ordering of loads in branches, or `control-dependent' loads -- you must use membar_consumer() instead: int *ok, *p, v; if (*ok) { membar_consumer(); v = *p; consume(v); } Most CPUs do not reorder data-dependent loads (i.e., most CPUs guarantee that cached values are not stale in that case), so membar_datadep_consumer() is a no-op on those CPUs. membar_sync() All memory operations preceding membar_sync() will happen before any memory operations following it. membar_sync() is a sequential consistency acquire/release barrier, analogous to atomic_thread_fence(memory_order_seq_cst) in C11. membar_sync() is typically paired with membar_sync(). A load followed by membar_sync(), serving as a load-acquire opera- tion, may also be paired with a prior membar_exit() followed by a store, serving as the corresponding store-release operation. How- ever, you should use atomic_load_acquire(9) instead of load-then-membar_sync() if it is a regular load, or membar_enter() instead of membar_sync() if the load is in an atomic read/mod- ify/write operation.
SEE ALSO
atomic_ops(3), atomic_loadstore(9)
HISTORY
The membar_ops functions first appeared in NetBSD 5.0. The data-depen- dent load barrier, membar_datadep_consumer(), first appeared in NetBSD 7.0. NetBSD 9.99 September 2, 2020 NetBSD 9.99
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