ip(4) - NetBSD Manual Pages

Command: Section: Arch: Collection:  
IP(4)                   NetBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual                  IP(4)


NAME
ip -- Internet Protocol
SYNOPSIS
#include <sys/socket.h> #include <netinet/in.h> int socket(AF_INET, SOCK_RAW, proto);
DESCRIPTION
IP is the network layer protocol used by the Internet protocol family. Options may be set at the IP level when using higher-level protocols that are based on IP (such as TCP and UDP). It may also be accessed through a ``raw socket'' when developing new protocols, or special-purpose applica- tions. There are several IP-level setsockopt(2)/getsockopt(2) options. IP_OPTIONS may be used to provide IP options to be transmitted in the IP header of each outgoing packet or to examine the header options on incom- ing packets. IP options may be used with any socket type in the Internet family. The format of IP options to be sent is that specified by the IP protocol specification (RFC 791), with one exception: the list of addresses for Source Route options must include the first-hop gateway at the beginning of the list of gateways. The first-hop gateway address will be extracted from the option list and the size adjusted accordingly before use. To disable previously specified options, use a zero-length buffer: setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_OPTIONS, NULL, 0); IP_TOS and IP_TTL may be used to set the type-of-service and time-to-live fields in the IP header for SOCK_STREAM and SOCK_DGRAM sockets. For example, int tos = IPTOS_LOWDELAY; /* see <netinet/ip.h> */ setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_TOS, &tos, sizeof(tos)); int ttl = 60; /* max = 255 */ setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_TTL, &ttl, sizeof(ttl)); IP_IPSEC_POLICY controls IPSec policy for sockets. For example, const char *policy = "in ipsec ah/transport//require"; char *buf = ipsec_set_policy(policy, strlen(policy)); setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_IPSEC_POLICY, buf, ipsec_get_policylen(buf)); The IP_RECVPKTINFO option can be used to turn on receiving of information about the destination address of the packet, and the interface index. The information is passed in a struct in_pktinfo structure, which con- tains struct in_addr ipi_addr; /* the source or destination address */ unsigned int ipi_ifindex; /* the interface index */ and added to the control portion of the message: The cmsghdr fields have the following values: cmsg_len = CMSG_LEN(sizeof(struct in_pktinfo)) cmsg_level = IPPROTO_IP cmsg_type = IP_PKTINFO For sendmsg(2), the source address or output interface can be specified by adding an IP_PKTINFO message to the control part of the message on a SOCK_DGRAM or SOCK_RAW socket. Setting ipi_ifindex will cause the pri- mary address of that interface to be used; setting ipi_addr will directly choose that address. The IP_PKTINFO cmsghdr structure from a received message may be used unchanged, in which case the outgoing message will be sent from the address the incoming message was received on. Setting the IP_PKTINFO option on a socket, with the same struct in_pktinfo structure, will set the default source address to be used until set again, unless explicitly overridden on a per-packet basis, as above. The IP_PORTALGO can be used to randomize the port selection. Valid algo- rithms are described in rfc6056(7) and their respective constants are in <netinet/portalgo.h>. For example, int algo = PORTALGO_ALGO_RANDOM_PICK; /* see <netinet/portalgo.h> */ setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_PORTALGO, &algo, sizeof(algo)); The port selection can be also viewed and controlled at a global level for all IP sockets using the following sysctl(7) variables: net.inet.ip.anonportalgo.available and net.inet.ip.anonportalgo.selected. IP_PORTRANGE controls how ephemeral ports are allocated for SOCK_STREAM and SOCK_DGRAM sockets. For example, int range = IP_PORTRANGE_LOW; /* see <netinet/in.h> */ setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_PORTRANGE, &range, sizeof(range)); If the IP_RECVDSTADDR option is enabled on a SOCK_DGRAM or SOCK_RAW socket, the recvmsg(2) call will return the destination IP address for a UDP datagram. The msg_control field in the msghdr structure points to a buffer that contains a cmsghdr structure followed by the IP address. The cmsghdr fields have the following values: cmsg_len = CMSG_LEN(sizeof(struct in_addr)) cmsg_level = IPPROTO_IP cmsg_type = IP_RECVDSTADDR For sendmsg(2), the source address can be specified by adding IP_SENDSRCADDR to the control part of the message on a SOCK_DGRAM or SOCK_RAW socket. The IP_RECVDSTADDR cmsghdr structure from a received message may be used unchanged, in which case the outgoing message will be sent from the address the incoming message was received on. If the IP_RECVIF option is enabled on a SOCK_DGRAM or SOCK_RAW socket, the recvmsg(2) call will return a struct sockaddr_dl corresponding to the interface on which the packet was received. the msg_control field in the msghdr structure points to a buffer that contains a cmsghdr structure followed by the struct sockaddr_dl. The cmsghdr fields have the follow- ing values: cmsg_len = CMSG_LEN(sizeof(struct sockaddr_dl)) cmsg_level = IPPROTO_IP cmsg_type = IP_RECVIF If the IP_BINDANY option is enabled on a SOCK_STREAM, SOCK_DGRAM, or a SOCK_RAW socket, one can bind(2) to any address, even one not bound to any available network interface in the system. This functionality (in conjunction with special firewall rules) can be used for implementing a transparent proxy. The KAUTH_REQ_NETWORK_BIND_ANYADDR privilege is needed to set this option. If the IP_RECVTTL option is enabled on a SOCK_DGRAM socket, the recvmsg(2) call will return the TTL of the received datagram. The msg_control field in the msghdr structure points to a buffer that con- tains a cmsghdr structure followed by the TTL value. The cmsghdr fields have the following values: cmsg_len = CMSG_LEN(sizeof(uint8_t)) cmsg_level = IPPROTO_IP cmsg_type = IP_RECVTTL The IP_MINTTL option may be used on SOCK_DGRAM or SOCK_STREAM sockets to discard packets with a TTL lower than the option value. This can be used to implement the Generalized TTL Security Mechanism (GTSM) according to RFC 3682. To discard all packets with a TTL lower than 255: int minttl = 255; setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_MINTTL, &minttl, sizeof(minttl)); MULTICAST OPTIONS IP multicasting is supported only on AF_INET sockets of type SOCK_DGRAM and SOCK_RAW, and only on networks where the interface driver supports multicasting. The IP_MULTICAST_TTL option changes the time-to-live (TTL) for outgoing multicast datagrams in order to control the scope of the multicasts: u_char ttl; /* range: 0 to 255, default = 1 */ setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_MULTICAST_TTL, &ttl, sizeof(ttl)); Datagrams with a TTL of 1 are not forwarded beyond the local network. Multicast datagrams with a TTL of 0 will not be transmitted on any net- work, but may be delivered locally if the sending host belongs to the destination group and if multicast loopback has not been disabled on the sending socket (see below). Multicast datagrams with TTL greater than 1 may be forwarded to other networks if a multicast router is attached to the local network. For hosts with multiple interfaces, each multicast transmission is sent from the primary network interface. The IP_MULTICAST_IF option overrides the default for subsequent transmissions from a given socket: struct in_addr addr; setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_MULTICAST_IF, &addr, sizeof(addr)); where "addr" is the local IP address of the desired interface or INADDR_ANY to specify the default interface. An interface's local IP address and multicast capability can be obtained via the SIOCGIFCONF and SIOCGIFFLAGS ioctls. An application may also specify an alternative to the default network interface by index: struct uint32_t idx = htonl(ifindex); setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_MULTICAST_IF, &idx, sizeof(idx)); where "ifindex" is an interface index as returned by if_nametoindex(3). Normal applications should not need to use IP_MULTICAST_IF. If a multicast datagram is sent to a group to which the sending host itself belongs (on the outgoing interface), a copy of the datagram is, by default, looped back by the IP layer for local delivery. The IP_MULTICAST_LOOP option gives the sender explicit control over whether or not subsequent datagrams are looped back: u_char loop; /* 0 = disable, 1 = enable (default) */ setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_MULTICAST_LOOP, &loop, sizeof(loop)); This option improves performance for applications that may have no more than one instance on a single host (such as a router demon), by eliminat- ing the overhead of receiving their own transmissions. It should gener- ally not be used by applications for which there may be more than one instance on a single host (such as a conferencing program) or for which the sender does not belong to the destination group (such as a time querying program). A multicast datagram sent with an initial TTL greater than 1 may be delivered to the sending host on a different interface from that on which it was sent, if the host belongs to the destination group on that other interface. The loopback control option has no effect on such delivery. A host must become a member of a multicast group before it can receive datagrams sent to the group. To join a multicast group, use the IP_ADD_MEMBERSHIP option: struct ip_mreq mreq; setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_ADD_MEMBERSHIP, &mreq, sizeof(mreq)); where mreq is the following structure: struct ip_mreq { struct in_addr imr_multiaddr; /* multicast group to join */ struct in_addr imr_interface; /* interface to join on */ } imr_interface should be INADDR_ANY to choose the default multicast inter- face, or the IP address of a particular multicast-capable interface if the host is multihomed. Membership is associated with a single inter- face; programs running on multihomed hosts may need to join the same group on more than one interface. Up to IP_MAX_MEMBERSHIPS (currently 20) memberships may be added on a single socket. To drop a membership, use: struct ip_mreq mreq; setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_DROP_MEMBERSHIP, &mreq, sizeof(mreq)); where mreq contains the same values as used to add the membership. Mem- berships are dropped when the socket is closed or the process exits. RAW IP SOCKETS Raw IP sockets are connectionless, and are normally used with the sendto(2) and recvfrom(2) calls, though the connect(2) call may also be used to fix the destination for future packets (in which case the read(2) or recv(2) and write(2) or send(2) system calls may be used). If proto is 0, the default protocol IPPROTO_RAW is used for outgoing packets, and only incoming packets destined for that protocol are received. If proto is non-zero, that protocol number will be used on outgoing packets and to filter incoming packets. Outgoing packets automatically have an IP header prepended to them (based on the destination address and the protocol number the socket is created with), unless the IP_HDRINCL option has been set. Incoming packets are received with IP header and options intact. IP_HDRINCL indicates the complete IP header is included with the data and may be used only with the SOCK_RAW type. #include <netinet/ip.h> int hincl = 1; /* 1 = on, 0 = off */ setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_HDRINCL, &hincl, sizeof(hincl)); Unlike previous BSD releases, the program must set all the fields of the IP header, including the following: ip->ip_v = IPVERSION; ip->ip_hl = hlen >> 2; ip->ip_id = 0; /* 0 means kernel set appropriate value */ ip->ip_off = offset; If the header source address is set to INADDR_ANY, the kernel will choose an appropriate address.
DIAGNOSTICS
A socket operation may fail with one of the following errors returned: [EACCES] when an attempt is made to create a raw IP socket by a non-privileged process. [EADDRNOTAVAIL] when an attempt is made to create a socket with a net- work address for which no network interface exists. [EISCONN] when trying to establish a connection on a socket which already has one, or when trying to send a datagram with the destination address specified and the socket is already connected; [ENOBUFS] when the system runs out of memory for an internal data structure; [ENOTCONN] when trying to send a datagram, but no destination address is specified, and the socket hasn't been con- nected; The following errors specific to IP may occur when setting or getting IP options: [EINVAL] An unknown socket option name was given; or the IP option field was improperly formed; an option field was shorter than the minimum value or longer than the option buffer provided.
COMPATIBILITY
The IP_RECVPKTINFO option is used because it is directly compatible with Solaris, AIX, etc., and the IP_PKTINFO option is intended to be used in their manner, to set the default source address for outgoing packets on a SOCK_DGRAM or SOCK_RAW socket. For compatibility with Linux, however, if you attempt to set the IP_PKTINFO option, using an integer parameter as a boolean value, this will transparently manipulate the IP_RECVPKTINFO option instead. Source code compatibility with both environments is thus maintained.
SEE ALSO
getsockopt(2), recv(2), send(2), CMSG_DATA(3), ipsec_set_policy(3), icmp(4), inet(4), intro(4) Internet Protocol, RFC, 791, September 1981. Host Extensions for IP Multicasting, RFC, 1112, August 1989. Requirements for Internet Hosts -- Communication Layers, RFC, 1122, October 1989.
HISTORY
The ip protocol appeared in 4.2BSD. NetBSD 9.99 September 8, 2020 NetBSD 9.99
Powered by man-cgi (2020-09-24). Maintained for NetBSD by Kimmo Suominen. Based on man-cgi by Panagiotis Christias.