tmux(1) - NetBSD Manual Pages

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TMUX(1)                 NetBSD General Commands Manual                 TMUX(1)


NAME
tmux -- terminal multiplexer
SYNOPSIS
tmux [-2lCquvV] [-c shell-command] [-f file] [-L socket-name] [-S socket-path] [command [flags]]
DESCRIPTION
tmux is a terminal multiplexer: it enables a number of terminals to be created, accessed, and controlled from a single screen. tmux may be detached from a screen and continue running in the background, then later reattached. When tmux is started it creates a new session with a single window and displays it on screen. A status line at the bottom of the screen shows information on the current session and is used to enter interactive com- mands. A session is a single collection of pseudo terminals under the management of tmux. Each session has one or more windows linked to it. A window occupies the entire screen and may be split into rectangular panes, each of which is a separate pseudo terminal (the pty(7) manual page documents the technical details of pseudo terminals). Any number of tmux instances may connect to the same session, and any number of windows may be present in the same session. Once all sessions are killed, tmux exits. Each session is persistent and will survive accidental disconnection (such as ssh(1) connection timeout) or intentional detaching (with the `C-b d' key strokes). tmux may be reattached using: $ tmux attach In tmux, a session is displayed on screen by a client and all sessions are managed by a single server. The server and each client are separate processes which communicate through a socket in /tmp. The options are as follows: -2 Force tmux to assume the terminal supports 256 colours. -C Start in control mode (see the CONTROL MODE section). Given twice (-CC) disables echo. -c shell-command Execute shell-command using the default shell. If neces- sary, the tmux server will be started to retrieve the default-shell option. This option is for compatibility with sh(1) when tmux is used as a login shell. -f file Specify an alternative configuration file. By default, tmux loads the system configuration file from @SYSCONFDIR@/tmux.conf, if present, then looks for a user configuration file at ~/.tmux.conf. The configuration file is a set of tmux commands which are executed in sequence when the server is first started. tmux loads configuration files once when the server process has started. The source-file command may be used to load a file later. tmux shows any error messages from commands in configura- tion files in the first session created, and continues to process the rest of the configuration file. -L socket-name tmux stores the server socket in a directory under TMUX_TMPDIR, TMPDIR if it is unset, or /tmp if both are unset. The default socket is named default. This option allows a different socket name to be specified, allowing several independent tmux servers to be run. Unlike -S a full path is not necessary: the sockets are all created in the same directory. If the socket is accidentally removed, the SIGUSR1 signal may be sent to the tmux server process to recreate it. -l Behave as a login shell. This flag currently has no effect and is for compatibility with other shells when using tmux as a login shell. -q Set the quiet server option to prevent the server sending various informational messages. -S socket-path Specify a full alternative path to the server socket. If -S is specified, the default socket directory is not used and any -L flag is ignored. -u tmux attempts to guess if the terminal is likely to support UTF-8 by checking the first of the LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE and LANG environment variables to be set for the string "UTF-8". This is not always correct: the -u flag explic- itly informs tmux that UTF-8 is supported. If the server is started from a client passed -u or where UTF-8 is detected, the utf8 and status-utf8 options are enabled in the global window and session options respec- tively. -v Request verbose logging. This option may be specified mul- tiple times for increasing verbosity. Log messages will be saved into tmux-client-PID.log and tmux-server-PID.log files in the current directory, where PID is the PID of the server or client process. -V Report the tmux version. command [flags] This specifies one of a set of commands used to control tmux, as described in the following sections. If no com- mands are specified, the new-session command is assumed.
KEY BINDINGS
tmux may be controlled from an attached client by using a key combination of a prefix key, `C-b' (Ctrl-b) by default, followed by a command key. The default command key bindings are: C-b Send the prefix key (C-b) through to the application. C-o Rotate the panes in the current window forwards. C-z Suspend the tmux client. ! Break the current pane out of the window. " Split the current pane into two, top and bottom. # List all paste buffers. $ Rename the current session. % Split the current pane into two, left and right. & Kill the current window. ' Prompt for a window index to select. , Rename the current window. - Delete the most recently copied buffer of text. . Prompt for an index to move the current window. 0 to 9 Select windows 0 to 9. : Enter the tmux command prompt. ; Move to the previously active pane. = Choose which buffer to paste interactively from a list. ? List all key bindings. D Choose a client to detach. [ Enter copy mode to copy text or view the history. ] Paste the most recently copied buffer of text. c Create a new window. d Detach the current client. f Prompt to search for text in open windows. i Display some information about the current window. l Move to the previously selected window. n Change to the next window. o Select the next pane in the current window. p Change to the previous window. q Briefly display pane indexes. r Force redraw of the attached client. s Select a new session for the attached client interac- tively. L Switch the attached client back to the last session. t Show the time. w Choose the current window interactively. x Kill the current pane. { Swap the current pane with the previous pane. } Swap the current pane with the next pane. ~ Show previous messages from tmux, if any. Page Up Enter copy mode and scroll one page up. Up, Down Left, Right Change to the pane above, below, to the left, or to the right of the current pane. M-1 to M-5 Arrange panes in one of the five preset layouts: even- horizontal, even-vertical, main-horizontal, main-verti- cal, or tiled. M-n Move to the next window with a bell or activity marker. M-o Rotate the panes in the current window backwards. M-p Move to the previous window with a bell or activity marker. C-Up, C-Down C-Left, C-Right Resize the current pane in steps of one cell. M-Up, M-Down M-Left, M-Right Resize the current pane in steps of five cells. Key bindings may be changed with the bind-key and unbind-key commands.
COMMANDS
This section contains a list of the commands supported by tmux. Most commands accept the optional -t argument with one of target-client, target-session target-window, or target-pane. These specify the client, session, window or pane which a command should affect. target-client is the name of the pty(7) file to which the client is connected, for example either of /dev/ttyp1 or ttyp1 for the client attached to /dev/ttyp1. If no client is specified, the current client is chosen, if possible, or an error is reported. Clients may be listed with the list-clients command. target-session is the session id prefixed with a $, the name of a session (as listed by the list-sessions command), or the name of a client with the same syntax as target-client, in which case the session attached to the client is used. When looking for the session name, tmux initially searches for an exact match; if none is found, the session names are checked for any for which target-session is a prefix or for which it matches as an fnmatch(3) pattern. If a single match is found, it is used as the target session; multiple matches produce an error. If a session is omitted, the current session is used if available; if no current ses- sion is available, the most recently used is chosen. target-window specifies a window in the form session:window. session follows the same rules as for target-session, and window is looked for in order: as a window index, for example mysession:1; as a window ID, such as @1; as an exact window name, such as mysession:mywindow; then as an fnmatch(3) pattern or the start of a window name, such as myses- sion:mywin* or mysession:mywin. An empty window name specifies the next unused index if appropriate (for example the new-window and link-window commands) otherwise the current window in session is chosen. The special character `!' uses the last (previously current) window, `^' selects the highest numbered window, `$' selects the lowest numbered window, and `+' and `-' select the next window or the previous window by number. When the argument does not contain a colon, tmux first attempts to parse it as window; if that fails, an attempt is made to match a session. target-pane takes a similar form to target-window but with the optional addition of a period followed by a pane index, for example: myses- sion:mywindow.1. If the pane index is omitted, the currently active pane in the specified window is used. If neither a colon nor period appears, tmux first attempts to use the argument as a pane index; if that fails, it is looked up as for target-window. A `+' or `-' indicate the next or previous pane index, respectively. One of the strings top, bottom, left, right, top-left, top-right, bottom-left or bottom-right may be used instead of a pane index. The special characters `+' and `-' may be followed by an offset, for example: select-window -t:+2 When dealing with a session that doesn't contain sequential window indexes, they will be correctly skipped. tmux also gives each pane created in a server an identifier consisting of a `%' and a number, starting from zero. A pane's identifier is unique for the life of the tmux server and is passed to the child process of the pane in the TMUX_PANE environment variable. It may be used alone to tar- get a pane or the window containing it. shell-command arguments are sh(1) commands. These must be passed as a single item, which typically means quoting them, for example: new-window 'vi /etc/passwd' command [arguments] refers to a tmux command, passed with the command and arguments separately, for example: bind-key F1 set-window-option force-width 81 Or if using sh(1): $ tmux bind-key F1 set-window-option force-width 81 Multiple commands may be specified together as part of a command sequence. Each command should be separated by spaces and a semicolon; commands are executed sequentially from left to right and lines ending with a backslash continue on to the next line, except when escaped by another backslash. A literal semicolon may be included by escaping it with a backslash (for example, when specifying a command sequence to bind-key). Example tmux commands include: refresh-client -t/dev/ttyp2 rename-session -tfirst newname set-window-option -t:0 monitor-activity on new-window ; split-window -d bind-key R source-file ~/.tmux.conf \; \ display-message "source-file done" Or from sh(1): $ tmux kill-window -t :1 $ tmux new-window \; split-window -d $ tmux new-session -d 'vi /etc/passwd' \; split-window -d \; attach
CLIENTS AND SESSIONS
The tmux server manages clients, sessions, windows and panes. Clients are attached to sessions to interact with them, either when they are cre- ated with the new-session command, or later with the attach-session com- mand. Each session has one or more windows linked into it. Windows may be linked to multiple sessions and are made up of one or more panes, each of which contains a pseudo terminal. Commands for creating, linking and otherwise manipulating windows are covered in the WINDOWS AND PANES sec- tion. The following commands are available to manage clients and sessions: attach-session [-dr] [-c working-directory] [-t target-session] (alias: attach) If run from outside tmux, create a new client in the current ter- minal and attach it to target-session. If used from inside, switch the current client. If -d is specified, any other clients attached to the session are detached. -r signifies the client is read-only (only keys bound to the detach-client or switch-client commands have any effect) If no server is started, attach-session will attempt to start it; this will fail unless sessions are created in the configuration file. The target-session rules for attach-session are slightly adjusted: if tmux needs to select the most recently used session, it will prefer the most recently used unattached session. -c will set the session working directory (used for new windows) to working-directory. detach-client [-P] [-a] [-s target-session] [-t target-client] (alias: detach) Detach the current client if bound to a key, the client specified with -t, or all clients currently attached to the session speci- fied by -s. The -a option kills all but the client given with -t. If -P is given, send SIGHUP to the parent process of the client, typically causing it to exit. has-session [-t target-session] (alias: has) Report an error and exit with 1 if the specified session does not exist. If it does exist, exit with 0. kill-server Kill the tmux server and clients and destroy all sessions. kill-session [-a] [-t target-session] Destroy the given session, closing any windows linked to it and no other sessions, and detaching all clients attached to it. If -a is given, all sessions but the specified one is killed. list-clients [-F format] [-t target-session] (alias: lsc) List all clients attached to the server. For the meaning of the -F flag, see the FORMATS section. If target-session is speci- fied, list only clients connected to that session. list-commands (alias: lscm) List the syntax of all commands supported by tmux. list-sessions [-F format] (alias: ls) List all sessions managed by the server. For the meaning of the -F flag, see the FORMATS section. lock-client [-t target-client] (alias: lockc) Lock target-client, see the lock-server command. lock-session [-t target-session] (alias: locks) Lock all clients attached to target-session. new-session [-AdDP] [-c start-directory] [-F format] [-n window-name] [-s session-name] [-t target-session] [-x width] [-y height] [shell-command] (alias: new) Create a new session with name session-name. The new session is attached to the current terminal unless -d is given. window-name and shell-command are the name of and shell command to execute in the initial window. If -d is used, -x and -y specify the size of the initial window (80 by 24 if not given). If run from a terminal, any termios(3) special characters are saved and used for new windows in the new session. The -A flag makes new-session behave like attach-session if session-name already exists; in the case, -D behaves like -d to attach-session. If -t is given, the new session is grouped with target-session. This means they share the same set of windows - all windows from target-session are linked to the new session and any subsequent new windows or windows being closed are applied to both sessions. The current and previous window and any session options remain independent and either session may be killed without affecting the other. Giving -n or shell-command are invalid if -t is used. The -P option prints information about the new session after it has been created. By default, it uses the format `#{session_name}:' but a different format may be specified with -F. refresh-client [-S] [-t target-client] (alias: refresh) Refresh the current client if bound to a key, or a single client if one is given with -t. If -S is specified, only update the client's status bar. rename-session [-t target-session] new-name (alias: rename) Rename the session to new-name. show-messages [-IJT] [-t target-client] (alias: showmsgs) Show client messages or server information. Any messages dis- played on the status line are saved in a per-client message log, up to a maximum of the limit set by the message-limit session option for the session attached to that client. With -t, display the log for target-client. -I, -J and -T show debugging informa- tion about the running server, jobs and terminals. source-file path (alias: source) Execute commands from path. start-server (alias: start) Start the tmux server, if not already running, without creating any sessions. suspend-client [-t target-client] (alias: suspendc) Suspend a client by sending SIGTSTP (tty stop). switch-client [-lnpr] [-c target-client] [-t target-session] (alias: switchc) Switch the current session for client target-client to target-session. If -l, -n or -p is used, the client is moved to the last, next or previous session respectively. -r toggles whether a client is read-only (see the attach-session command).
WINDOWS AND PANES
A tmux window may be in one of several modes. The default permits direct access to the terminal attached to the window. The other is copy mode, which permits a section of a window or its history to be copied to a paste buffer for later insertion into another window. This mode is entered with the copy-mode command, bound to `[' by default. It is also entered when a command that produces output, such as list-keys, is exe- cuted from a key binding. The keys available depend on whether emacs or vi mode is selected (see the mode-keys option). The following keys are supported as appropriate for the mode: Function vi emacs Back to indentation ^ M-m Bottom of history G M-< Clear selection Escape C-g Copy selection Enter M-w Cursor down j Down Cursor left h Left Cursor right l Right Cursor to bottom line L Cursor to middle line M M-r Cursor to top line H M-R Cursor up k Up Delete entire line d C-u Delete/Copy to end of line D C-k End of line $ C-e Go to line : g Half page down C-d M-Down Half page up C-u M-Up Jump forward f f Jump to forward t Jump backward F F Jump to backward T Jump again ; ; Jump again in reverse , , Next page C-f Page down Next space W Next space, end of word E Next word w Next word end e M-f Other end of selection o Paste buffer p C-y Previous page C-b Page up Previous word b M-b Previous space B Quit mode q Escape Rectangle toggle v R Scroll down C-Down or C-e C-Down Scroll up C-Up or C-y C-Up Search again n n Search again in reverse N N Search backward ? C-r Search forward / C-s Start of line 0 C-a Start selection Space C-Space Top of history g M-> Transpose characters C-t The next and previous word keys use space and the `-', `_' and `@' char- acters as word delimiters by default, but this can be adjusted by setting the word-separators session option. Next word moves to the start of the next word, next word end to the end of the next word and previous word to the start of the previous word. The three next and previous space keys work similarly but use a space alone as the word separator. The jump commands enable quick movement within a line. For instance, typing `f' followed by `/' will move the cursor to the next `/' character on the current line. A `;' will then jump to the next occurrence. Commands in copy mode may be prefaced by an optional repeat count. With vi key bindings, a prefix is entered using the number keys; with emacs, the Alt (meta) key and a number begins prefix entry. For example, to move the cursor forward by ten words, use `M-1 0 M-f' in emacs mode, and `10w' in vi. When copying the selection, the repeat count indicates the buffer index to replace, if used. Mode key bindings are defined in a set of named tables: vi-edit and emacs-edit for keys used when line editing at the command prompt; vi-choice and emacs-choice for keys used when choosing from lists (such as produced by the choose-window command); and vi-copy and emacs-copy used in copy mode. The tables may be viewed with the list-keys command and keys modified or removed with bind-key and unbind-key. One command accepts an argument, copy-pipe, which copies the selection and pipes it to a command. For example the following will bind `C-q' to copy the selection into /tmp as well as the paste buffer: bind-key -temacs-copy C-q copy-pipe "cat >/tmp/out" The paste buffer key pastes the first line from the top paste buffer on the stack. The synopsis for the copy-mode command is: copy-mode [-u] [-t target-pane] Enter copy mode. The -u option scrolls one page up. Each window displayed by tmux may be split into one or more panes; each pane takes up a certain area of the display and is a separate terminal. A window may be split into panes using the split-window command. Windows may be split horizontally (with the -h flag) or vertically. Panes may be resized with the resize-pane command (bound to `C-up', `C-down' `C-left' and `C-right' by default), the current pane may be changed with the select-pane command and the rotate-window and swap-pane commands may be used to swap panes without changing their position. Panes are numbered beginning from zero in the order they are created. A number of preset layouts are available. These may be selected with the select-layout command or cycled with next-layout (bound to `Space' by default); once a layout is chosen, panes within it may be moved and resized as normal. The following layouts are supported: even-horizontal Panes are spread out evenly from left to right across the window. even-vertical Panes are spread evenly from top to bottom. main-horizontal A large (main) pane is shown at the top of the window and the remaining panes are spread from left to right in the leftover space at the bottom. Use the main-pane-height window option to specify the height of the top pane. main-vertical Similar to main-horizontal but the large pane is placed on the left and the others spread from top to bottom along the right. See the main-pane-width window option. tiled Panes are spread out as evenly as possible over the window in both rows and columns. In addition, select-layout may be used to apply a previously used layout - the list-windows command displays the layout of each window in a form suitable for use with select-layout. For example: $ tmux list-windows 0: ksh [159x48] layout: bb62,159x48,0,0{79x48,0,0,79x48,80,0} $ tmux select-layout bb62,159x48,0,0{79x48,0,0,79x48,80,0} tmux automatically adjusts the size of the layout for the current window size. Note that a layout cannot be applied to a window with more panes than that from which the layout was originally defined. Commands related to windows and panes are as follows: break-pane [-dP] [-F format] [-t target-pane] (alias: breakp) Break target-pane off from its containing window to make it the only pane in a new window. If -d is given, the new window does not become the current window. The -P option prints information about the new window after it has been created. By default, it uses the format `#{session_name}:#{window_index}' but a different format may be specified with -F. capture-pane [-aepPq] [-b buffer-index] [-E end-line] [-S start-line] [-t target-pane] (alias: capturep) Capture the contents of a pane. If -p is given, the output goes to stdout, otherwise to the buffer specified with -b or a new buffer if omitted. If -a is given, the alternate screen is used, and the history is not accessible. If no alternate screen exists, an error will be returned unless -q is given. If -e is given, the output includes escape sequences for text and back- ground attributes. -C also escapes non-printable characters as octal \xxx. -J joins wrapped lines and preserves trailing spaces at each line's end. -P captures only any output that the pane has received that is the beginning of an as-yet incomplete escape sequence. -S and -E specify the starting and ending line numbers, zero is the first line of the visible pane and negative numbers are lines in the history. The default is to capture only the visible con- tents of the pane. choose-client [-F format] [-t target-window] [template] Put a window into client choice mode, allowing a client to be selected interactively from a list. After a client is chosen, `%%' is replaced by the client pty(7) path in template and the result executed as a command. If template is not given, "detach- client -t '%%'" is used. For the meaning of the -F flag, see the FORMATS section. This command works only if at least one client is attached. choose-list [-l items] [-t target-window] [template] Put a window into list choice mode, allowing items to be selected. items can be a comma-separated list to display more than one item. If an item has spaces, that entry must be quoted. After an item is chosen, `%%' is replaced by the chosen item in the template and the result is executed as a command. If template is not given, "run-shell '%%'" is used. items also accepts format specifiers. For the meaning of this see the FORMATS section. This command works only if at least one client is attached. choose-session [-F format] [-t target-window] [template] Put a window into session choice mode, where a session may be selected interactively from a list. When one is chosen, `%%' is replaced by the session name in template and the result executed as a command. If template is not given, "switch-client -t '%%'" is used. For the meaning of the -F flag, see the FORMATS sec- tion. This command works only if at least one client is attached. choose-tree [-suw] [-b session-template] [-c window-template] [-S format] [-W format] [-t target-window] Put a window into tree choice mode, where either sessions or win- dows may be selected interactively from a list. By default, win- dows belonging to a session are indented to show their relation- ship to a session. Note that the choose-window and choose-session commands are wrap- pers around choose-tree. If -s is given, will show sessions. If -w is given, will show windows. By default, the tree is collapsed and sessions must be expanded to windows with the right arrow key. The -u option will start with all sessions expanded instead. If -b is given, will override the default session command. Note that `%%' can be used and will be replaced with the session name. The default option if not specified is "switch-client -t '%%'". If -c is given, will override the default window command. Like -b, `%%' can be used and will be replaced with the session name and window index. When a window is chosen from the list, the session command is run before the window command. If -S is given will display the specified format instead of the default session format. If -W is given will display the speci- fied format instead of the default window format. For the mean- ing of the -s and -w options, see the FORMATS section. This command works only if at least one client is attached. choose-window [-F format] [-t target-window] [template] Put a window into window choice mode, where a window may be cho- sen interactively from a list. After a window is selected, `%%' is replaced by the session name and window index in template and the result executed as a command. If template is not given, "select-window -t '%%'" is used. For the meaning of the -F flag, see the FORMATS section. This command works only if at least one client is attached. display-panes [-t target-client] (alias: displayp) Display a visible indicator of each pane shown by target-client. See the display-panes-time, display-panes-colour, and display-panes-active-colour session options. While the indicator is on screen, a pane may be selected with the `0' to `9' keys. find-window [-CNT] [-F format] [-t target-window] match-string (alias: findw) Search for the fnmatch(3) pattern match-string in window names, titles, and visible content (but not history). The flags control matching behavior: -C matches only visible window contents, -N matches only the window name and -T matches only the window title. The default is -CNT. If only one window is matched, it'll be automatically selected, otherwise a choice list is shown. For the meaning of the -F flag, see the FORMATS section. This command works only if at least one client is attached. join-pane [-bdhv] [-l size | -p percentage] [-s src-pane] [-t dst-pane] (alias: joinp) Like split-window, but instead of splitting dst-pane and creating a new pane, split it and move src-pane into the space. This can be used to reverse break-pane. The -b option causes src-pane to be joined to left of or above dst-pane. kill-pane [-a] [-t target-pane] (alias: killp) Destroy the given pane. If no panes remain in the containing window, it is also destroyed. The -a option kills all but the pane given with -t. kill-window [-a] [-t target-window] (alias: killw) Kill the current window or the window at target-window, removing it from any sessions to which it is linked. The -a option kills all but the window given with -t. last-pane [-t target-window] (alias: lastp) Select the last (previously selected) pane. last-window [-t target-session] (alias: last) Select the last (previously selected) window. If no target-session is specified, select the last window of the cur- rent session. link-window [-dk] [-s src-window] [-t dst-window] (alias: linkw) Link the window at src-window to the specified dst-window. If dst-window is specified and no such window exists, the src-window is linked there. If -k is given and dst-window exists, it is killed, otherwise an error is generated. If -d is given, the newly linked window is not selected. list-panes [-as] [-F format] [-t target] (alias: lsp) If -a is given, target is ignored and all panes on the server are listed. If -s is given, target is a session (or the current ses- sion). If neither is given, target is a window (or the current window). For the meaning of the -F flag, see the FORMATS sec- tion. list-windows [-a] [-F format] [-t target-session] (alias: lsw) If -a is given, list all windows on the server. Otherwise, list windows in the current session or in target-session. For the meaning of the -F flag, see the FORMATS section. move-pane [-bdhv] [-l size | -p percentage] [-s src-pane] [-t dst-pane] (alias: movep) Like join-pane, but src-pane and dst-pane may belong to the same window. move-window [-rdk] [-s src-window] [-t dst-window] (alias: movew) This is similar to link-window, except the window at src-window is moved to dst-window. With -r, all windows in the session are renumbered in sequential order, respecting the base-index option. new-window [-adkP] [-c start-directory] [-F format] [-n window-name] [-t target-window] [shell-command] (alias: neww) Create a new window. With -a, the new window is inserted at the next index up from the specified target-window, moving windows up if necessary, otherwise target-window is the new window location. If -d is given, the session does not make the new window the cur- rent window. target-window represents the window to be created; if the target already exists an error is shown, unless the -k flag is used, in which case it is destroyed. shell-command is the command to execute. If shell-command is not specified, the value of the default-command option is used. -c specifies the working directory in which the new window is created. When the shell command completes, the window closes. See the remain-on-exit option to change this behaviour. The TERM environment variable must be set to ``screen'' for all programs running inside tmux. New windows will automatically have ``TERM=screen'' added to their environment, but care must be taken not to reset this in shell start-up files. The -P option prints information about the new window after it has been created. By default, it uses the format `#{session_name}:#{window_index}' but a different format may be specified with -F. next-layout [-t target-window] (alias: nextl) Move a window to the next layout and rearrange the panes to fit. next-window [-a] [-t target-session] (alias: next) Move to the next window in the session. If -a is used, move to the next window with an alert. pipe-pane [-o] [-t target-pane] [shell-command] (alias: pipep) Pipe any output sent by the program in target-pane to a shell command. A pane may only be piped to one command at a time, any existing pipe is closed before shell-command is executed. The shell-command string may contain the special character sequences supported by the status-left option. If no shell-command is given, the current pipe (if any) is closed. The -o option only opens a new pipe if no previous pipe exists, allowing a pipe to be toggled with a single key, for example: bind-key C-p pipe-pane -o 'cat >>~/output.#I-#P' previous-layout [-t target-window] (alias: prevl) Move to the previous layout in the session. previous-window [-a] [-t target-session] (alias: prev) Move to the previous window in the session. With -a, move to the previous window with an alert. rename-window [-t target-window] new-name (alias: renamew) Rename the current window, or the window at target-window if specified, to new-name. resize-pane [-DLRUZ] [-t target-pane] [-x width] [-y height] [adjustment] (alias: resizep) Resize a pane, up, down, left or right by adjustment with -U, -D, -L or -R, or to an absolute size with -x or -y. The adjustment is given in lines or cells (the default is 1). With -Z, the active pane is toggled between zoomed (occupying the whole of the window) and unzoomed (its normal position in the layout). respawn-pane [-k] [-t target-pane] [shell-command] (alias: respawnp) Reactivate a pane in which the command has exited (see the remain-on-exit window option). If shell-command is not given, the command used when the pane was created is executed. The pane must be already inactive, unless -k is given, in which case any existing command is killed. respawn-window [-k] [-t target-window] [shell-command] (alias: respawnw) Reactivate a window in which the command has exited (see the remain-on-exit window option). If shell-command is not given, the command used when the window was created is executed. The window must be already inactive, unless -k is given, in which case any existing command is killed. rotate-window [-DU] [-t target-window] (alias: rotatew) Rotate the positions of the panes within a window, either upward (numerically lower) with -U or downward (numerically higher). select-layout [-np] [-t target-window] [layout-name] (alias: selectl) Choose a specific layout for a window. If layout-name is not given, the last preset layout used (if any) is reapplied. -n and -p are equivalent to the next-layout and previous-layout com- mands. select-pane [-lDLRU] [-t target-pane] (alias: selectp) Make pane target-pane the active pane in window target-window. If one of -D, -L, -R, or -U is used, respectively the pane below, to the left, to the right, or above the target pane is used. -l is the same as using the last-pane command. select-window [-lnpT] [-t target-window] (alias: selectw) Select the window at target-window. -l, -n and -p are equivalent to the last-window, next-window and previous-window commands. If -T is given and the selected window is already the current win- dow, the command behaves like last-window. split-window [-dhvP] [-c start-directory] [-l size | -p percentage] [-t target-pane] [shell-command] [-F format] (alias: splitw) Create a new pane by splitting target-pane: -h does a horizontal split and -v a vertical split; if neither is specified, -v is assumed. The -l and -p options specify the size of the new pane in lines (for vertical split) or in cells (for horizontal split), or as a percentage, respectively. All other options have the same meaning as for the new-window command. swap-pane [-dDU] [-s src-pane] [-t dst-pane] (alias: swapp) Swap two panes. If -U is used and no source pane is specified with -s, dst-pane is swapped with the previous pane (before it numerically); -D swaps with the next pane (after it numerically). -d instructs tmux not to change the active pane. swap-window [-d] [-s src-window] [-t dst-window] (alias: swapw) This is similar to link-window, except the source and destination windows are swapped. It is an error if no window exists at src-window. unlink-window [-k] [-t target-window] (alias: unlinkw) Unlink target-window. Unless -k is given, a window may be unlinked only if it is linked to multiple sessions - windows may not be linked to no sessions; if -k is specified and the window is linked to only one session, it is unlinked and destroyed.
KEY BINDINGS
tmux allows a command to be bound to most keys, with or without a prefix key. When specifying keys, most represent themselves (for example `A' to `Z'). Ctrl keys may be prefixed with `C-' or `^', and Alt (meta) with `M-'. In addition, the following special key names are accepted: Up, Down, Left, Right, BSpace, BTab, DC (Delete), End, Enter, Escape, F1 to F20, Home, IC (Insert), NPage/PageDown/PgDn, PPage/PageUp/PgUp, Space, and Tab. Note that to bind the `"' or `'' keys, quotation marks are nec- essary, for example: bind-key '"' split-window bind-key "'" new-window Commands related to key bindings are as follows: bind-key [-cnr] [-t key-table] key command [arguments] (alias: bind) Bind key key to command. By default (without -t) the primary key bindings are modified (those normally activated with the prefix key); in this case, if -n is specified, it is not necessary to use the prefix key, command is bound to key alone. The -r flag indicates this key may repeat, see the repeat-time option. If -t is present, key is bound in key-table: the binding for com- mand mode with -c or for normal mode without. To view the default bindings and possible commands, see the list-keys com- mand. list-keys [-t key-table] (alias: lsk) List all key bindings. Without -t the primary key bindings - those executed when preceded by the prefix key - are printed. With -t, the key bindings in key-table are listed; this may be one of: vi-edit, emacs-edit, vi-choice, emacs-choice, vi-copy or emacs-copy. send-keys [-lR] [-t target-pane] key ... (alias: send) Send a key or keys to a window. Each argument key is the name of the key (such as `C-a' or `npage' ) to send; if the string is not recognised as a key, it is sent as a series of characters. The -l flag disables key name lookup and sends the keys literally. All arguments are sent sequentially from first to last. The -R flag causes the terminal state to be reset. send-prefix [-2] [-t target-pane] Send the prefix key, or with -2 the secondary prefix key, to a window as if it was pressed. unbind-key [-acn] [-t key-table] key (alias: unbind) Unbind the command bound to key. Without -t the primary key bindings are modified; in this case, if -n is specified, the com- mand bound to key without a prefix (if any) is removed. If -a is present, all key bindings are removed. If -t is present, key in key-table is unbound: the binding for command mode with -c or for normal mode without.
OPTIONS
The appearance and behaviour of tmux may be modified by changing the value of various options. There are three types of option: server options, session options and window options. The tmux server has a set of global options which do not apply to any particular window or session. These are altered with the set-option -s command, or displayed with the show-options -s command. In addition, each individual session may have a set of session options, and there is a separate set of global session options. Sessions which do not have a particular option configured inherit the value from the global session options. Session options are set or unset with the set-option command and may be listed with the show-options command. The available server and session options are listed under the set-option command. Similarly, a set of window options is attached to each window, and there is a set of global window options from which any unset options are inher- ited. Window options are altered with the set-window-option command and can be listed with the show-window-options command. All window options are documented with the set-window-option command. tmux also supports user options which are prefixed with a `@'. User options may have any name, so long as they are prefixed with `@', and be set to any string. For example $ tmux setw -q @foo "abc123" $ tmux showw -v @foo abc123 Commands which set options are as follows: set-option [-agoqsuw] [-t target-session | target-window] option value (alias: set) Set a window option with -w (equivalent to the set-window-option command), a server option with -s, otherwise a session option. If -g is specified, the global session or window option is set. The -u flag unsets an option, so a session inherits the option from the global options. It is not possible to unset a global option. The -o flag prevents setting an option that is already set. The -q flag suppresses the informational message (as if the quiet server option was set). With -a, and if the option expects a string or a style, value is appended to the existing setting. For example: set -g status-left "foo" set -ag status-left "bar" Will result in `foobar'. And: set -g status-style "bg=red" set -ag status-style "fg=blue" Will result in a red background and blue foreground. Without -a, the result would be the default background and a blue foreground. Available window options are listed under set-window-option. value depends on the option and may be a number, a string, or a flag (on, off, or omitted to toggle). Available server options are: buffer-limit number Set the number of buffers; as new buffers are added to the top of the stack, old ones are removed from the bot- tom if necessary to maintain this maximum length. escape-time time Set the time in milliseconds for which tmux waits after an escape is input to determine if it is part of a func- tion or meta key sequences. The default is 500 millisec- onds. exit-unattached [on | off] If enabled, the server will exit when there are no attached clients. focus-events [on | off] When enabled, focus events are requested from the termi- nal if supported and passed through to applications run- ning in tmux. Attached clients should be detached and attached again after changing this option. quiet [on | off] Enable or disable the display of various informational messages (see also the -q command line flag). set-clipboard [on | off] Attempt to set the terminal clipboard content using the \e]52;...\007 xterm(1) escape sequences. This option is on by default if there is an Ms entry in the terminfo(5) description for the client terminal. Note that this fea- ture needs to be enabled in xterm(1) by setting the resource: disallowedWindowOps: 20,21,SetXprop Or changing this property from the xterm(1) interactive menu when required. Available session options are: assume-paste-time milliseconds If keys are entered faster than one in milliseconds, they are assumed to have been pasted rather than typed and tmux key bindings are not processed. The default is one millisecond and zero disables. base-index index Set the base index from which an unused index should be searched when a new window is created. The default is zero. bell-action [any | none | current] Set action on window bell. any means a bell in any win- dow linked to a session causes a bell in the current win- dow of that session, none means all bells are ignored and current means only bells in windows other than the cur- rent window are ignored. bell-on-alert [on | off] If on, ring the terminal bell when an alert occurs. default-command shell-command Set the command used for new windows (if not specified when the window is created) to shell-command, which may be any sh(1) command. The default is an empty string, which instructs tmux to create a login shell using the value of the default-shell option. default-shell path Specify the default shell. This is used as the login shell for new windows when the default-command option is set to empty, and must be the full path of the exe- cutable. When started tmux tries to set a default value from the first suitable of the SHELL environment vari- able, the shell returned by getpwuid(3), or /bin/sh. This option should be configured when tmux is used as a login shell. default-terminal terminal Set the default terminal for new windows created in this session - the default value of the TERM environment vari- able. For tmux to work correctly, this must be set to `screen' or a derivative of it. destroy-unattached [on | off] If enabled and the session is no longer attached to any clients, it is destroyed. detach-on-destroy [on | off] If on (the default), the client is detached when the ses- sion it is attached to is destroyed. If off, the client is switched to the most recently active of the remaining sessions. display-panes-active-colour colour Set the colour used by the display-panes command to show the indicator for the active pane. display-panes-colour colour Set the colour used by the display-panes command to show the indicators for inactive panes. display-panes-time time Set the time in milliseconds for which the indicators shown by the display-panes command appear. display-time time Set the amount of time for which status line messages and other on-screen indicators are displayed. time is in milliseconds. history-limit lines Set the maximum number of lines held in window history. This setting applies only to new windows - existing win- dow histories are not resized and retain the limit at the point they were created. lock-after-time number Lock the session (like the lock-session command) after number seconds of inactivity, or the entire server (all sessions) if the lock-server option is set. The default is not to lock (set to 0). lock-command shell-command Command to run when locking each client. The default is to run lock(1) with -np. lock-server [on | off] If this option is on (the default), instead of each ses- sion locking individually as each has been idle for lock-after-time, the entire server will lock after all sessions would have locked. This has no effect as a ses- sion option; it must be set as a global option. message-command-style style Set status line message command style, where style is a comma-separated list of characteristics to be specified. These may be `bg=colour' to set the background colour, `fg=colour' to set the foreground colour, and a list of attributes as specified below. The colour is one of: black, red, green, yellow, blue, magenta, cyan, white, aixterm bright variants (if sup- ported: brightred, brightgreen, and so on), colour0 to colour255 from the 256-colour set, default, or a hexadec- imal RGB string such as `#ffffff', which chooses the closest match from the default 256-colour set. The attributes is either none or a comma-delimited list of one or more of: bright (or bold), dim, underscore, blink, reverse, hidden, or italics, to turn an attribute on, or an attribute prefixed with `no' to turn one off. Examples are: fg=yellow,bold,underscore,blink bg=black,fg=default,noreverse With the -a flag to the set-option command the new style is added otherwise the existing style is replaced. message-limit number Set the number of error or information messages to save in the message log for each client. The default is 20. message-style style Set status line message style. For how to specify style, see the message-command-style option. mouse-resize-pane [on | off] If on, tmux captures the mouse and allows panes to be resized by dragging on their borders. mouse-select-pane [on | off] If on, tmux captures the mouse and when a window is split into multiple panes the mouse may be used to select the current pane. The mouse click is also passed through to the application as normal. mouse-select-window [on | off] If on, clicking the mouse on a window name in the status line will select that window. mouse-utf8 [on | off] If enabled, request mouse input as UTF-8 on UTF-8 termi- nals. pane-active-border-style style Set the pane border style for the currently active pane. For how to specify style, see the message-command-style option. Attributes are ignored. pane-border-style style Set the pane border style for paneas aside from the active pane. For how to specify style, see the message-command-style option. Attributes are ignored. prefix key Set the key accepted as a prefix key. prefix2 key Set a secondary key accepted as a prefix key. renumber-windows [on | off] If on, when a window is closed in a session, automati- cally renumber the other windows in numerical order. This respects the base-index option if it has been set. If off, do not renumber the windows. repeat-time time Allow multiple commands to be entered without pressing the prefix-key again in the specified time milliseconds (the default is 500). Whether a key repeats may be set when it is bound using the -r flag to bind-key. Repeat is enabled for the default keys bound to the resize-pane command. set-remain-on-exit [on | off] Set the remain-on-exit window option for any windows first created in this session. When this option is true, windows in which the running program has exited do not close, instead remaining open but inactivate. Use the respawn-window command to reactivate such a window, or the kill-window command to destroy it. set-titles [on | off] Attempt to set the client terminal title using the tsl and fsl terminfo(5) entries if they exist. tmux automat- ically sets these to the \e]2;...\007 sequence if the terminal appears to be an xterm. This option is off by default. Note that elinks will only attempt to set the window title if the STY environment variable is set. set-titles-string string String used to set the window title if set-titles is on. Character sequences are replaced as for the status-left option. status [on | off] Show or hide the status line. status-interval interval Update the status bar every interval seconds. By default, updates will occur every 15 seconds. A setting of zero disables redrawing at interval. status-justify [left | centre | right] Set the position of the window list component of the sta- tus line: left, centre or right justified. status-keys [vi | emacs] Use vi or emacs-style key bindings in the status line, for example at the command prompt. The default is emacs, unless the VISUAL or EDITOR environment variables are set and contain the string `vi'. status-left string Display string (by default the session name) to the left of the status bar. string will be passed through strftime(3) and formats (see FORMATS) will be expanded. It may also contain any of the following special charac- ter sequences: Character pair Replaced with #(shell-command) First line of the command's output #[attributes] Colour or attribute change ## A literal `#' The #(shell-command) form executes `shell-command' and inserts the first line of its output. Note that shell commands are only executed once at the interval specified by the status-interval option: if the status line is redrawn in the meantime, the previous result is used. Shell commands are executed with the tmux global environ- ment set (see the ENVIRONMENT section). For details on how the names and titles can be set see the NAMES AND TITLES section. For a list of allowed attributes see the message-command-style option. Examples are: #(sysctl vm.loadavg) #[fg=yellow,bold]#(apm -l)%%#[default] [#S] Where appropriate, special character sequences may be prefixed with a number to specify the maximum length, for example `#24T'. By default, UTF-8 in string is not interpreted, to enable UTF-8, use the status-utf8 option. status-left-length length Set the maximum length of the left component of the sta- tus bar. The default is 10. status-left-style style Set the style of the left part of the status line. For how to specify style, see the message-command-style option. status-position [top | bottom] Set the position of the status line. status-right string Display string to the right of the status bar. By default, the current window title in double quotes, the date and the time are shown. As with status-left, string will be passed to strftime(3), character pairs are replaced, and UTF-8 is dependent on the status-utf8 option. status-right-length length Set the maximum length of the right component of the sta- tus bar. The default is 40. status-right-style style Set the style of the right part of the status line. For how to specify style, see the message-command-style option. status-style style Set status line style. For how to specify style, see the message-command-style option. status-utf8 [on | off] Instruct tmux to treat top-bit-set characters in the status-left and status-right strings as UTF-8; notably, this is important for wide characters. This option defaults to off. terminal-overrides string Contains a list of entries which override terminal descriptions read using terminfo(5). string is a comma- separated list of items each a colon-separated string made up of a terminal type pattern (matched using fnmatch(3)) and a set of name=value entries. For example, to set the `clear' terminfo(5) entry to `\e[H\e[2J' for all terminal types and the `dch1' entry to `\e[P' for the `rxvt' terminal type, the option could be set to the string: "*:clear=\e[H\e[2J,rxvt:dch1=\e[P" The terminal entry value is passed through strunvis(3) before interpretation. The default value forcibly cor- rects the `colors' entry for terminals which support 256 colours: "*256col*:colors=256,xterm*:XT" update-environment variables Set a space-separated string containing a list of envi- ronment variables to be copied into the session environ- ment when a new session is created or an existing session is attached. Any variables that do not exist in the source environment are set to be removed from the session environment (as if -r was given to the set-environment command). The default is "DISPLAY SSH_ASKPASS SSH_AUTH_SOCK SSH_AGENT_PID SSH_CONNECTION WINDOWID XAU- THORITY". visual-activity [on | off] If on, display a status line message when activity occurs in a window for which the monitor-activity window option is enabled. visual-bell [on | off] If this option is on, a message is shown on a bell instead of it being passed through to the terminal (which normally makes a sound). Also see the bell-action option. visual-content [on | off] Like visual-activity, display a message when content is present in a window for which the monitor-content window option is enabled. visual-silence [on | off] If monitor-silence is enabled, prints a message after the interval has expired on a given window. word-separators string Sets the session's conception of what characters are con- sidered word separators, for the purposes of the next and previous word commands in copy mode. The default is ` -_@'. set-window-option [-agoqu] [-t target-window] option value (alias: setw) Set a window option. The -a, -g, -o, -q and -u flags work simi- larly to the set-option command. Supported window options are: aggressive-resize [on | off] Aggressively resize the chosen window. This means that tmux will resize the window to the size of the smallest session for which it is the current window, rather than the smallest session to which it is attached. The window may resize when the current window is changed on another sessions; this option is good for full-screen programs which support SIGWINCH and poor for interactive programs such as shells. allow-rename [on | off] Allow programs to change the window name using a terminal escape sequence (\033k...\033\\). The default is on. alternate-screen [on | off] This option configures whether programs running inside tmux may use the terminal alternate screen feature, which allows the smcup and rmcup terminfo(5) capabilities. The alternate screen feature preserves the contents of the window when an interactive application starts and restores it on exit, so that any output visible before the application starts reappears unchanged after it exits. The default is on. automatic-rename [on | off] Control automatic window renaming. When this setting is enabled, tmux will rename the window automatically using the format specified by automatic-rename-format. This flag is automatically disabled for an individual window when a name is specified at creation with new-window or new-session, or later with rename-window, or with a ter- minal escape sequence. It may be switched off globally with: set-window-option -g automatic-rename off automatic-rename-format format The format (see FORMATS) used when the automatic-rename option is enabled. c0-change-interval interval c0-change-trigger trigger These two options configure a simple form of rate limit- ing for a pane. If tmux sees more than trigger C0 sequences that modify the screen (for example, carriage returns, linefeeds or backspaces) in one millisecond, it will stop updating the pane immediately and instead redraw it entirely every interval milliseconds. This helps to prevent fast output (such as yes(1)) overwhelm- ing the terminal. The default is a trigger of 250 and an interval of 100. A trigger of zero disables the rate limiting. clock-mode-colour colour Set clock colour. clock-mode-style [12 | 24] Set clock hour format. force-height height force-width width Prevent tmux from resizing a window to greater than width or height. A value of zero restores the default unlim- ited setting. main-pane-height height main-pane-width width Set the width or height of the main (left or top) pane in the main-horizontal or main-vertical layouts. mode-keys [vi | emacs] Use vi or emacs-style key bindings in copy and choice modes. As with the status-keys option, the default is emacs, unless VISUAL or EDITOR contains `vi'. mode-mouse [on | off | copy-mode] Mouse state in modes. If on, the mouse may be used to enter copy mode and copy a selection by dragging, to enter copy mode and scroll with the mouse wheel, or to select an option in choice mode. If set to copy-mode, the mouse behaves as set to on, but cannot be used to enter copy mode. mode-style style Set window modes style. For how to specify style, see the message-command-style option. monitor-activity [on | off] Monitor for activity in the window. Windows with activ- ity are highlighted in the status line. monitor-content match-string Monitor content in the window. When fnmatch(3) pattern match-string appears in the window, it is highlighted in the status line. monitor-silence [interval] Monitor for silence (no activity) in the window within interval seconds. Windows that have been silent for the interval are highlighted in the status line. An interval of zero disables the monitoring. other-pane-height height Set the height of the other panes (not the main pane) in the main-horizontal layout. If this option is set to 0 (the default), it will have no effect. If both the main-pane-height and other-pane-height options are set, the main pane will grow taller to make the other panes the specified height, but will never shrink to do so. other-pane-width width Like other-pane-height, but set the width of other panes in the main-vertical layout. pane-base-index index Like base-index, but set the starting index for pane num- bers. remain-on-exit [on | off] A window with this flag set is not destroyed when the program running in it exits. The window may be reacti- vated with the respawn-window command. synchronize-panes [on | off] Duplicate input to any pane to all other panes in the same window (only for panes that are not in any special mode). utf8 [on | off] Instructs tmux to expect UTF-8 sequences to appear in this window. window-status-activity-style style Set status line style for windows with an activity alert. For how to specify style, see the message-command-style option. window-status-bell-style style Set status line style for windows with a bell alert. For how to specify style, see the message-command-style option. window-status-content-style style Set status line style for windows with a content alert. For how to specify style, see the message-command-style option. window-status-current-format string Like window-status-format, but is the format used when the window is the current window. window-status-current-style style Set status line style for the currently active window. For how to specify style, see the message-command-style option. window-status-format string Set the format in which the window is displayed in the status line window list. See the status-left option for details of special character sequences available. The default is `#I:#W#F'. window-status-last-style style Set status line style for the last active window. For how to specify style, see the message-command-style option. window-status-separator string Sets the separator drawn between windows in the status line. The default is a single space character. window-status-style style Set status line style for a single window. For how to specify style, see the message-command-style option. xterm-keys [on | off] If this option is set, tmux will generate xterm(1) -style function key sequences; these have a number included to indicate modifiers such as Shift, Alt or Ctrl. The default is off. wrap-search [on | off] If this option is set, searches will wrap around the end of the pane contents. The default is on. show-options [-gqsvw] [-t target-session | target-window] [option] (alias: show) Show the window options (or a single window option if given) with -w (equivalent to show-window-options), the server options with -s, otherwise the session options for target session. Global session or window options are listed if -g is used. -v shows only the option value, not the name. If -q is set, no error will be returned if option is unset. show-window-options [-gv] [-t target-window] [option] (alias: showw) List the window options or a single option for target-window, or the global window options if -g is used. -v shows only the option value, not the name.
FORMATS
Certain commands accept the -F flag with a format argument. This is a string which controls the output format of the command. Replacement variables are enclosed in `#{' and `}', for example `#{session_name}'. Some variables also have an shorter alias such as `#S'. `##' is replaced by a single `#'. Conditionals are also accepted by prefixing with `?' and separating two alternatives with a comma; if the specified variable exists and is not zero, the first alternative is chosen, otherwise the second is used. For example `#{?session_attached,attached,not attached}' will include the string `attached' if the session is attached and the string `not attached' if it is unattached. A limit may be placed on the length of the resultant string by prefixing it by an `=', a number and a colon, so `#{=10:pane_title}' will include at most the first 10 charac- ters of the pane title. The following variables are available, where appropriate: Variable name Alias Replaced with alternate_on If pane is in alternate screen alternate_saved_x Saved cursor X in alternate screen alternate_saved_y Saved cursor Y in alternate screen buffer_sample First 50 characters from buffer buffer_size Size of the specified buffer in bytes client_activity Integer time client last had activity client_activity_string String time client last had activity client_created Integer time client created client_created_string String time client created client_height Height of client client_last_session Name of the client's last session client_prefix 1 if prefix key has been pressed client_readonly 1 if client is readonly client_session Name of the client's session client_termname Terminal name of client client_tty Pseudo terminal of client client_utf8 1 if client supports utf8 client_width Width of client cursor_flag Pane cursor flag cursor_x Cursor X position in pane cursor_y Cursor Y position in pane history_bytes Number of bytes in window history history_limit Maximum window history lines history_size Size of history in bytes host #H Hostname of local host host_short #h Hostname of local host (no domain name) insert_flag Pane insert flag keypad_cursor_flag Pane keypad cursor flag keypad_flag Pane keypad flag line Line number in the list mouse_any_flag Pane mouse any flag mouse_button_flag Pane mouse button flag mouse_standard_flag Pane mouse standard flag mouse_utf8_flag Pane mouse UTF-8 flag pane_active 1 if active pane pane_current_command Current command if available pane_current_path Current path if available pane_dead 1 if pane is dead pane_height Height of pane pane_id #D Unique pane ID pane_in_mode If pane is in a mode pane_synchronized If pane is synchronized pane_index #P Index of pane pane_pid PID of first process in pane pane_start_command Command pane started with pane_start_path Path pane started with pane_tabs Pane tab positions pane_title #T Title of pane pane_tty Pseudo terminal of pane pane_width Width of pane saved_cursor_x Saved cursor X in pane saved_cursor_y Saved cursor Y in pane scroll_region_lower Bottom of scroll region in pane scroll_region_upper Top of scroll region in pane session_attached 1 if session attached session_created Integer time session created session_created_string String time session created session_group Number of session group session_grouped 1 if session in a group session_height Height of session session_id Unique session ID session_name #S Name of session session_width Width of session session_windows Number of windows in session window_active 1 if window active window_activity_flag 1 if window has activity alert window_bell_flag 1 if window has bell window_content_flag 1 if window has content alert window_find_matches Matched data from the find-window window_flags #F Window flags window_height Height of window window_id Unique window ID window_index #I Index of window window_layout Window layout description window_name #W Name of window window_panes Number of panes in window window_silence_flag 1 if window has silence alert window_width Width of window wrap_flag Pane wrap flag
NAMES AND TITLES
tmux distinguishes between names and titles. Windows and sessions have names, which may be used to specify them in targets and are displayed in the status line and various lists: the name is the tmux identifier for a window or session. Only panes have titles. A pane's title is typically set by the program running inside the pane and is not modified by tmux. It is the same mechanism used to set for example the xterm(1) window title in an X(7) window manager. Windows themselves do not have titles - a window's title is the title of its active pane. tmux itself may set the title of the terminal in which the client is running, see the set-titles option. A session's name is set with the new-session and rename-session commands. A window's name is set with one of: 1. A command argument (such as -n for new-window or new-session). 2. An escape sequence: $ printf '\033kWINDOW_NAME\033\\' 3. Automatic renaming, which sets the name to the active command in the window's active pane. See the automatic-rename option. When a pane is first created, its title is the hostname. A pane's title can be set via the OSC title setting sequence, for example: $ printf '\033]2;My Title\033\\'
ENVIRONMENT
When the server is started, tmux copies the environment into the global environment; in addition, each session has a session environment. When a window is created, the session and global environments are merged. If a variable exists in both, the value from the session environment is used. The result is the initial environment passed to the new process. The update-environment session option may be used to update the session environment from the client when a new session is created or an old reat- tached. tmux also initialises the TMUX variable with some internal information to allow commands to be executed from inside, and the TERM variable with the correct terminal setting of `screen'. Commands to alter and view the environment are: set-environment [-gru] [-t target-session] name [value] (alias: setenv) Set or unset an environment variable. If -g is used, the change is made in the global environment; otherwise, it is applied to the session environment for target-session. The -u flag unsets a variable. -r indicates the variable is to be removed from the environment before starting a new process. show-environment [-g] [-t target-session] [variable] (alias: showenv) Display the environment for target-session or the global environ- ment with -g. If variable is omitted, all variables are shown. Variables removed from the environment are prefixed with `-'.
STATUS LINE
tmux includes an optional status line which is displayed in the bottom line of each terminal. By default, the status line is enabled (it may be disabled with the status session option) and contains, from left-to- right: the name of the current session in square brackets; the window list; the title of the active pane in double quotes; and the time and date. The status line is made of three parts: configurable left and right sec- tions (which may contain dynamic content such as the time or output from a shell command, see the status-left, status-left-length, status-right, and status-right-length options below), and a central window list. By default, the window list shows the index, name and (if any) flag of the windows present in the current session in ascending numerical order. It may be customised with the window-status-format and window-status-current-format options. The flag is one of the following symbols appended to the window name: Symbol Meaning * Denotes the current window. - Marks the last window (previously selected). # Window is monitored and activity has been detected. ! A bell has occurred in the window. + Window is monitored for content and it has appeared. ~ The window has been silent for the monitor-silence interval. Z The window's active pane is zoomed. The # symbol relates to the monitor-activity and + to the monitor-content window options. The window name is printed in inverted colours if an alert (bell, activity or content) is present. The colour and attributes of the status line may be configured, the entire status line using the status-style session option and individual windows using the window-status-style window option. The status line is automatically refreshed at interval if it has changed, the interval may be controlled with the status-interval session option. Commands related to the status line are as follows: command-prompt [-I inputs] [-p prompts] [-t target-client] [template] Open the command prompt in a client. This may be used from inside tmux to execute commands interactively. If template is specified, it is used as the command. If present, -I is a comma-separated list of the initial text for each prompt. If -p is given, prompts is a comma-separated list of prompts which are displayed in order; otherwise a single prompt is dis- played, constructed from template if it is present, or `:' if not. Both inputs and prompts may contain the special character sequences supported by the status-left option. Before the command is executed, the first occurrence of the string `%%' and all occurrences of `%1' are replaced by the response to the first prompt, the second `%%' and all `%2' are replaced with the response to the second prompt, and so on for further prompts. Up to nine prompt responses may be replaced (`%1' to `%9'). confirm-before [-p prompt] [-t target-client] command (alias: confirm) Ask for confirmation before executing command. If -p is given, prompt is the prompt to display; otherwise a prompt is con- structed from command. It may contain the special character sequences supported by the status-left option. This command works only from inside tmux. display-message [-p] [-c target-client] [-t target-pane] [message] (alias: display) Display a message. If -p is given, the output is printed to std- out, otherwise it is displayed in the target-client status line. The format of message is described in the FORMATS section; infor- mation is taken from target-pane if -t is given, otherwise the active pane for the session attached to target-client.
BUFFERS
tmux maintains a stack of paste buffers. Up to the value of the buffer-limit option are kept; when a new buffer is added, the buffer at the bottom of the stack is removed. Buffers may be added using copy-mode or the set-buffer command, and pasted into a window using the paste-buffer command. A configurable history buffer is also maintained for each window. By default, up to 2000 lines are kept; this can be altered with the history-limit option (see the set-option command above). The buffer commands are as follows: choose-buffer [-F format] [-t target-window] [template] Put a window into buffer choice mode, where a buffer may be cho- sen interactively from a list. After a buffer is selected, `%%' is replaced by the buffer index in template and the result exe- cuted as a command. If template is not given, "paste-buffer -b '%%'" is used. For the meaning of the -F flag, see the FORMATS section. This command works only if at least one client is attached. clear-history [-t target-pane] (alias: clearhist) Remove and free the history for the specified pane. delete-buffer [-b buffer-index] (alias: deleteb) Delete the buffer at buffer-index, or the top buffer if not spec- ified. list-buffers [-F format] (alias: lsb) List the global buffers. For the meaning of the -F flag, see the FORMATS section. load-buffer [-b buffer-index] path (alias: loadb) Load the contents of the specified paste buffer from path. paste-buffer [-dpr] [-b buffer-index] [-s separator] [-t target-pane] (alias: pasteb) Insert the contents of a paste buffer into the specified pane. If not specified, paste into the current one. With -d, also delete the paste buffer from the stack. When output, any line- feed (LF) characters in the paste buffer are replaced with a sep- arator, by default carriage return (CR). A custom separator may be specified using the -s flag. The -r flag means to do no replacement (equivalent to a separator of LF). If -p is speci- fied, paste bracket control codes are inserted around the buffer if the application has requested bracketed paste mode. save-buffer [-a] [-b buffer-index] path (alias: saveb) Save the contents of the specified paste buffer to path. The -a option appends to rather than overwriting the file. set-buffer [-b buffer-index] data (alias: setb) Set the contents of the specified buffer to data. show-buffer [-b buffer-index] (alias: showb) Display the contents of the specified buffer.
MISCELLANEOUS
Miscellaneous commands are as follows: clock-mode [-t target-pane] Display a large clock. if-shell [-b] [-t target-pane] shell-command command [command] (alias: if) Execute the first command if shell-command returns success or the second command otherwise. Before being executed, shell-command is expanded using the rules specified in the FORMATS section, including those relevant to target-pane. With -b, shell-command is run in the background. lock-server (alias: lock) Lock each client individually by running the command specified by the lock-command option. run-shell [-b] [-t target-pane] shell-command (alias: run) Execute shell-command in the background without creating a win- dow. Before being executed, shell-command is expanded using the rules specified in the FORMATS section. With -b, the command is run in the background. After it finishes, any output to stdout is displayed in copy mode (in the pane specified by -t or the current pane if omitted). If the command doesn't return success, the exit status is also displayed. wait-for [-L | -S | -U] channel (alias: wait) When used without options, prevents the client from exiting until woken using wait-for -S with the same channel. When -L is used, the channel is locked and any clients that try to lock the same channel are made to wait until the channel is unlocked with wait-for -U. This command only works from outside tmux.
TERMINFO EXTENSIONS
tmux understands some extensions to terminfo(5): Cs, Cr Set the cursor colour. The first takes a single string argument and is used to set the colour; the second takes no arguments and restores the default cursor colour. If set, a sequence such as this may be used to change the cursor colour from inside tmux: $ printf '\033]12;red\033\\' Ss, Se Change the cursor style. If set, a sequence such as this may be used to change the cursor to an underline: $ printf '\033[4 q' If Csr is set, it will be used to reset the cursor style instead of Cs. Ms This sequence can be used by tmux to store the current buffer in the host terminal's selection (clipboard). See the set-clipboard option above and the xterm(1) man page.
CONTROL MODE
tmux offers a textual interface called control mode. This allows appli- cations to communicate with tmux using a simple text-only protocol. In control mode, a client sends tmux commands or command sequences termi- nated by newlines on standard input. Each command will produce one block of output on standard output. An output block consists of a %begin line followed by the output (which may be empty). The output block ends with a %end or %error. %begin and matching %end or %error have two arguments: an integer time (as seconds from epoch) and command number. For example: %begin 1363006971 2 0: ksh* (1 panes) [80x24] [layout b25f,80x24,0,0,2] @2 (active) %end 1363006971 2 In control mode, tmux outputs notifications. A notification will never occur inside an output block. The following notifications are defined: %exit [reason] The tmux client is exiting immediately, either because it is not attached to any session or an error occurred. If present, reason describes why the client exited. %layout-change window-id window-layout The layout of a window with ID window-id changed. The new layout is window-layout. %output pane-id value A window pane produced output. value escapes non-printable char- acters and backslash as octal \xxx. %session-changed session-id name The client is now attached to the session with ID session-id, which is named name. %session-renamed name The current session was renamed to name. %sessions-changed A session was created or destroyed. %unlinked-window-add window-id The window with ID window-id was created but is not linked to the current session. %window-add window-id The window with ID window-id was linked to the current session. %window-close window-id The window with ID window-id closed. %window-renamed window-id name The window with ID window-id was renamed to name.
FILES
~/.tmux.conf Default tmux configuration file. @SYSCONFDIR@/tmux.conf System-wide configuration file.
EXAMPLES
To create a new tmux session running vi(1): $ tmux new-session vi Most commands have a shorter form, known as an alias. For new-session, this is new: $ tmux new vi Alternatively, the shortest unambiguous form of a command is accepted. If there are several options, they are listed: $ tmux n ambiguous command: n, could be: new-session, new-window, next-window Within an active session, a new window may be created by typing `C-b c' (Ctrl followed by the `b' key followed by the `c' key). Windows may be navigated with: `C-b 0' (to select window 0), `C-b 1' (to select window 1), and so on; `C-b n' to select the next window; and `C-b p' to select the previous window. A session may be detached using `C-b d' (or by an external event such as ssh(1) disconnection) and reattached with: $ tmux attach-session Typing `C-b ?' lists the current key bindings in the current window; up and down may be used to navigate the list or `q' to exit from it. Commands to be run when the tmux server is started may be placed in the ~/.tmux.conf configuration file. Common examples include: Changing the default prefix key: set-option -g prefix C-a unbind-key C-b bind-key C-a send-prefix Turning the status line off, or changing its colour: set-option -g status off set-option -g status-style bg=blue Setting other options, such as the default command, or locking after 30 minutes of inactivity: set-option -g default-command "exec /bin/ksh" set-option -g lock-after-time 1800 Creating new key bindings: bind-key b set-option status bind-key / command-prompt "split-window 'exec man %%'" bind-key S command-prompt "new-window -n %1 'ssh %1'"
SEE ALSO
pty(7)
AUTHORS
Nicholas Marriott <nicm@users.sourceforge.net> NetBSD 7.0 January 22, 2022 NetBSD 7.0
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