- NetBSD Manual Pages
Powered by man-cgi (2021-06-01).
Maintained for NetBSD
by Kimmo Suominen.
Based on man-cgi by Panagiotis Christias.
gkermit - G-Kermit (GNU Kermit) 1.00 file transfer software.
gkermit [ options ] -s file(s) Send files
gkermit [ options ] -g file(s) Get files
gkermit [ options ] -r Receive files
G-Kermit is a UNIX program for transferring files using the Kermit proto-
col. G-Kermit is a product of Kermit Project at Columbia University. It
is free software under the GNU Public License. See the COPYING file for
The G-Kermit binary is called "gkermit". It should be stored someplace
in your UNIX PATH; normally it is available as /usr/local/bin/gkermit.
To run G-Kermit, just type "gkermit" followed by command-line options
that tell it what to do. If no options are given, it prints a usage mes-
sage listing the available options.
If an option takes an argument, the argument is required; if an option
does not take an argument, no argument may be given (exception: -d). The
action options are -r, -s, and -g. Only one action option may be given.
If no action options are given, G-Kermit does nothing (except possibly to
print its usage message or create a debug.log file). Here are some exam-
ples ("$ " is the shell prompt):
$ gkermit -s hello.c <-- Send the hello.c file
$ gkermit -s hello.* <-- Send all hello.* files
$ gkermit -r <-- Wait to receive files
$ gkermit -g hello.c <-- Get hello.c file
$ gkermit -g hello.\* <-- Get all hello.* files
Options that do not take arguments can be "bundled" with other options.
An option that takes an argument must always be followed by a space and
then its argument(s). Examples:
$ gkermit -is hello.o <-- Send hello.o in binary mode
$ gkermit -dr <-- Receive with debugging
-r RECEIVE. Wait for incoming files.
-s fn SEND. Send file(s) specified by fn.
-g fn GET. Get specified file(s) from server.
-a fn AS-NAME. Alternative name for file.
-i IMAGE. Binary-mode transfer (default).
-T TEXT. Text-mode transfer.
-P PATH (filename) conversion disabled.
-w WRITEOVER when filenames collide.
-K KEEP incompletely received files.
-p x PARITY. x = e,o,m,s,n; default = n(one).
-e n PACKET LENGTH. n = 40-9000; default=4000.
-b n TIMEOUT. Per-packet timeout, seconds.
-x XON/XOFF. Set Xon/Xoff in the tty driver.
--x Unset Xon/Xoff in the tty driver.
-S STREAMING disabled.
-X EXTERNAL. G-Kermit is an external protocol.
-q QUIET. Suppress messages.
-d DEBUG. Write debugging info to ./debug.log.
-d fn DEBUG. Write debugging info to given file.
-h HELP. Display brief usage message.
You may supply options to G-Kermit on the command line or through the
GKERMIT environment variable, which can contain any valid gkermit com-
mand-line options. These are processed before the actual command-line
options and so can be overridden by them. Example for bash or ksh, which
you can put in your profile if you want to always keep incomplete files,
suppress streaming, suppress messages, and use Space parity:
export GKERMIT="-K -S -q -p s"
MECHANICS OF FILE TRANSFER
To transfer files with G-Kermit you must be connected through a terminal
emulator to the UNIX system where G-Kermit is running, meaning you are
online to UNIX and have access to the shell prompt (or to a menu that has
an option to invoke G-Kermit). The connection can be serial (direct or
dialed) or network (Telnet, Rlogin, X.25, etc).
When you tell G-Kermit to SEND a file (or files), e.g. with:
$ gkermit -Ts oofa.txt
it pauses for a second and then sends its first packet. What happens
next depends on the capabilities of your terminal emulator:
· If your emulator supports Kermit "autodownloads" then it
receives the file automatically and puts you back in the termi-
nal screen when done.
· Otherwise, you'll need to take whatever action is required by
your emulator to get its attention: a mouse action, a keystroke
like Alt-x, or a character sequence like Ctrl-\ or Ctrl-] fol-
lowed by the letter "c" (this is called "escaping back") and
then tell it to receive the file. When the transfer is com-
plete, you must instruct your emulator to go back to its termi-
During file transfer, most terminal emulators put up some kind of running
display of the file transfer progress.
When you tell G-Kermit to RECEIVE (with "gkermit -r"), this requires you
to escape back to your terminal emulator and instruct it to send the
If your terminal emulator supports Kermit autodownloads AND Kermit server
mode, then you can use GET ("gkermit -g files...") rather than RECEIVE
("gkermit -r"), and the rest happens automatically, as when G-Kermit is
INTERRUPTING FILE TRANSFER
G-Kermit supports file and group interruption. The method for interrupt-
ing a transfer depends on your terminal emulator. For example, while the
file-transfer display is active, you might type the letter 'x' to cancel
the current file and go on to the next one (if any), and the letter 'z'
to cancel the group. Or there might be buttons you can click with your
When G-Kermit is in packet mode and your terminal emulator is in its ter-
minal screen, you can also type three (3) Ctrl-C characters in a row to
make G-Kermit exit and restore the normal terminal modes.
TEXT AND BINARY TRANSFER MODE
When sending files in binary mode, G-Kermit sends every byte exactly as
it is stored on the disk. This mode is appropriate for program binaries,
graphics files, tar archives, compressed files, etc, and is G-Kermit's
default file transfer mode when sending. When receiving files in binary
mode, G-Kermit simply copies each byte to disk. (Obviously the bytes are
encoded for transmission, but the encoding and decoding procedures give a
replica of the original file after transfer.)
When sending files in text mode, G-Kermit converts the record format to
the common one that is defined for the Kermit protocol, namely lines ter-
minated by carriage return and linefeed (CRLF); the receiver converts the
CRLFs to whatever line-end or record-format convention is used on its
platform. When receiving files in text mode, G-Kermit simply strips car-
riage returns, leaving only a linefeed at the end of each line, which is
the UNIX convention.
When receiving files, the sender's transfer mode (text or binary) predom-
inates if the sender gives this information to G-Kermit in a Kermit File
Attribute packet, which of course depends on whether your terminal emula-
tor's Kermit protocol has this feature. Otherwise, if you gave a -i or
-T option on the gkermit command line, the corresponding mode is used;
otherwise the default mode (binary) is used.
Furthermore, when either sending or receiving, G-Kermit and your terminal
emulator's Kermit can inform each other of their OS type (UNIX in G-Ker-
mit's case). If your emulator supports this capability, which is called
"automatic peer recognition", and it tells G-Kermit that its platform is
also UNIX, G-Kermit and the emulator's Kermit automatically switch into
binary mode, since no record-format conversion is necessary in this case.
Automatic peer recognition is disabled automatically if you include the
-i (image) or -T (text) option.
When sending, G-Kermit sends all files in the same mode, text or binary.
There is no automatic per-file mode switching. When receiving, however,
per-file switching occurs automatically based on the incoming Attribute
packets, if any (explained below), that accompany each file.
When SENDING a file, G-Kermit obtains the filenames from the command
line. It depends on the shell to expand metacharacters (wildcards and
G-Kermit uses the full pathname given to find and open the file, but then
strips the pathname before sending the name to the receiver. For exam-
$ gkermit -s /etc/hosts
results in the receiver getting a file called "HOSTS" or "hosts" (the
directory part, "/etc/", is stripped).
However, if a pathname is included in the -a option, the directory part
is not stripped:
$ gkermit -s /etc/hosts -a /tmp/hosts
This example sends the /etc/hosts file but tells the receiver that its
name is "/tmp/hosts". What the receiver does with the pathname is, of
course, up to the receiver, which might have various options for dealing
with incoming pathnames.
When RECEIVING a file, G-Kermit does NOT strip the pathname. If the
incoming filename includes a path, G-Kermit tries to store the file in
the specified place. If the path does not exist, the transfer fails.
The incoming pathname can, of course, be overridden with the -a option.
When sending a file, G-Kermit normally converts outbound filenames to
common form: uppercase, no more than one period, and no funny characters.
So, for example, gkermit.tar.gz would be sent as GKERMIT_TAR.GZ.
When receiving a file, if the name is all uppercase, G-Kermit converts it
to all lowercase. If the name contains any lowercase letters, G-Kermit
leaves the name alone.
If the automatic peer recognition feature is available in the terminal
emulator, and G-Kermit recognizes the emulator's platform as UNIX, G-Ker-
mit automatically disables filename conversion and sends and accepts
You can force literal filenames by including the -P option on the command
When G-Kermit receives a file whose name is the same as that of an exist-
ing file, G-Kermit "backs up" the existing file by adding a unique suffix
to its name. The suffix is ".~n~", where n is a number. This kind of
backup suffix is compatible with GNU EMACS and various other popular
To defeat the backup feature and have incoming files overwrite existing
files of the same name, include the -w (writeover) option on the command
G-Kermit resturns an exit status code of 0 if all actions succeeded and 1
if any actions failed.
G-Kermit is designed to be small, portable, and stable, and is intended
for use only on the "far end" of a connection; it does not make connec-
tions itself, although it can be used as an external protocol by other
programs that do make connections. To keep it small and stable, it does
not include sliding windows, a command or scripting language or charac-
ter-set translation. To keep it portable and stable, it avoids use of
system services that are not standardized across all UNIX varieties and
therefore, in particular, does not support file timestamps, internal
wildcard expansion, and other features that are not implemented consis-
tently (or at all) across all UNIXes.
A GKERMIT environment variable may be defined (for example in your shell
profile) to include G-Kermit command-line options; these are processed by
G-Kermit before any options that are specified on the command line, and
therefore are overriden by command-line options.
If an error occurs during file transfer G-Kermit sends an error packet to
your terminal emulator to cancel the transfer; an appropriate error mes-
sage should be displayed on your screen.
File transfers can fail for a number of reasons:
· Lack of read access to a source file.
· Lack of write access to a target directory.
· Lack of adequate flow control.
· Use of streaming on an unreliable connection.
· Excessive unprefixing of control characters.
· Sending bare 8-bit data on a 7-bit connection.
· Packets too long for receiver's buffers.
· Timeout interval too short for connection.
and many others; these are covered in the references.
The Kermit protocol is specified in "Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol" by
Frank da Cruz, Digital Press (1987). A correctness proof of the Kermit
protocol appears in "Specification and Validation Methods", edited by
Egon Boerger, Oxford University Press (1995). "Using C-Kermit" by Frank
da Cruz and Christine M. Gianone, Digital Press (1997, or later edition)
explains many of the terms and techniques referenced here in case you are
not familiar with them, and also includes tutorials on data communica-
tions, extensive troubleshooting and performance tips, etc. Various
other books on Kermit are available from Digital Press. Online resources
Also see the README file distributed with G-Kermit for further detail.
It can also be found at ftp://kermit.columbia.edu/kermit/g/README.
The speed of a file transfer depends not only on the speed of the two
computers involved and the characteristics of the connection, but also on
the capabilities and configuration of the two Kermit programs. Kermit is
a fast and reliable protocol, but not all implementations of it are nec-
essarily fast or reliable.
Nonstreaming transfers on a TCP/IP connection might be inordinately slow
if one or both of the TCP/IP stacks uses the Nagle or Delayed ACK tricks.
Streaming is used automatically if the other Kermit supports it.
When receiving files in text mode, G-Kermit strips all carriage returns,
even if they aren't followed by linefeed.
A backups files are not guaranteed to have the highest number in their
Frank da Cruz, the Kermit Project, Columbia University, New York City,
UNIX G-Kermit 25 Dec 1999 GKERMIT(1C)