ssh-keyscan(1) - NetBSD Manual Pages

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SSH-KEYSCAN(1)          NetBSD General Commands Manual          SSH-KEYSCAN(1)

ssh-keyscan -- gather SSH public keys from servers
ssh-keyscan [-46cDHv] [-f file] [-O option] [-p port] [-T timeout] [-t type] [host | addrlist namelist]
ssh-keyscan is a utility for gathering the public SSH host keys of a num- ber of hosts. It was designed to aid in building and verifying ssh_known_hosts files, the format of which is documented in sshd(8). ssh-keyscan provides a minimal interface suitable for use by shell and perl scripts. ssh-keyscan uses non-blocking socket I/O to contact as many hosts as pos- sible in parallel, so it is very efficient. The keys from a domain of 1,000 hosts can be collected in tens of seconds, even when some of those hosts are down or do not run sshd(8). For scanning, one does not need login access to the machines that are being scanned, nor does the scan- ning process involve any encryption. Hosts to be scanned may be specified by hostname, address or by CIDR net- work range (e.g. 192.168.16/28). If a network range is specified, then all addresses in that range will be scanned. The options are as follows: -4 Force ssh-keyscan to use IPv4 addresses only. -6 Force ssh-keyscan to use IPv6 addresses only. -c Request certificates from target hosts instead of plain keys. -D Print keys found as SSHFP DNS records. The default is to print keys in a format usable as a ssh(1) known_hosts file. -f file Read hosts or ``addrlist namelist'' pairs from file, one per line. If `-' is supplied instead of a filename, ssh-keyscan will read from the standard input. Names read from a file must start with an address, hostname or CIDR network range to be scanned. Addresses and hostnames may optionally be followed by comma-sepa- rated name or address aliases that will be copied to the output. For example:, -H Hash all hostnames and addresses in the output. Hashed names may be used normally by ssh(1) and sshd(8), but they do not reveal identifying information should the file's contents be disclosed. -O option Specify a key/value option. At present, only a single option is supported: hashalg=algorithm Selects a hash algorithm to use when printing SSHFP records using the -D flag. Valid algorithms are ``sha1'' and ``sha256''. The default is to print both. -p port Connect to port on the remote host. -T timeout Set the timeout for connection attempts. If timeout seconds have elapsed since a connection was initiated to a host or since the last time anything was read from that host, the connection is closed and the host in question considered unavailable. The default is 5 seconds. -t type Specify the type of the key to fetch from the scanned hosts. The possible values are ``dsa'', ``ecdsa'', ``ed25519'', ``ecdsa-sk'', ``ed25519-sk'', or ``rsa''. Multiple values may be specified by separating them with commas. The default is to fetch ``rsa'', ``ecdsa'', ``ed25519'', ``ecdsa-sk'', and ``ed25519-sk'' keys. -v Verbose mode: print debugging messages about progress. If an ssh_known_hosts file is constructed using ssh-keyscan without veri- fying the keys, users will be vulnerable to man in the middle attacks. On the other hand, if the security model allows such a risk, ssh-keyscan can help in the detection of tampered keyfiles or man in the middle attacks which have begun after the ssh_known_hosts file was created.
Print the RSA host key for machine hostname: $ ssh-keyscan -t rsa hostname Search a network range, printing all supported key types: $ ssh-keyscan Find all hosts from the file ssh_hosts which have new or different keys from those in the sorted file ssh_known_hosts: $ ssh-keyscan -t rsa,dsa,ecdsa,ed25519 -f ssh_hosts | \ sort -u - ssh_known_hosts | diff ssh_known_hosts -
ssh(1), sshd(8) Using DNS to Securely Publish Secure Shell (SSH) Key Fingerprints, RFC 4255, 2006.
David Mazieres <> wrote the initial version, and Wayne Davison <> added support for protocol version 2. NetBSD 10.0 February 10 2023 NetBSD 10.0
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