route(8) - NetBSD Manual Pages

Command: Section: Arch: Collection:  
ROUTE(8)                NetBSD System Manager's Manual                ROUTE(8)

route - manually manipulate the routing tables
route [-fnqsv] command [[modifiers] args]
route is a utility used to manually manipulate the network routing ta- bles. Except for setting up the default route, it is normally not need- ed, as a system routing table management daemon such as routed(8), should tend to this task. route can be used to modify nearly any aspect of the routing policy, ex- cept packet forwarding, which can be manipulated through the sysctl(8) command. The route utility supports a limited number of general options, but a rich command language, enabling the user to specify any arbitrary request that could be delivered via the programmatic interface discussed in route(4). -f Remove all routes (as per flush). If used in conjunction with the add, change, delete or get commands, route removes the routes before performing the command. -n Bypasses attempts to print host and network names symbolically when reporting actions. (The process of translating between sym- bolic names and numerical equivalents can be quite time consum- ing, and may require correct operation of the network; thus it may be expedient to forgo this, especially when attempting to re- pair networking operations). -q Suppress all output from commands that manipulate the routing table. -s (short) Suppresses all output from a get command except for the actual gateway that will be used. How the gateway is printed de- pends on the type of route being looked up. -v (verbose) Print additional details. The route utility provides several commands: add Add a route. flush Remove all routes. delete Delete a specific route. change Change aspects of a route (such as its gateway). get Lookup and display the route for a destination. show Print out the route table similar to "netstat -r" (see netstat(1)). monitor Continuously report any changes to the routing information base, routing lookup misses, or suspected network partition- ings. The monitor command has the syntax route [-n] monitor The flush command has the syntax route [-n] flush [family] If the flush command is specified, route will ``flush'' the routing ta- bles of all gateway entries. When the address family is specified by any of the -osi, -xns, -atalk, -inet, or -inet6 modifiers, only routes having destinations with addresses in the delineated family will be manipulated. The other commands have the following syntax: route [-n] command [-net | -host] destination gateway where destination is the destination host or network, and gateway is the next-hop intermediary via which packets should be routed. Routes to a particular host may be distinguished from those to a network by inter- preting the Internet address specified as the destination argument. The optional modifiers -net and -host force the destination to be interpreted as a network or a host, respectively. Otherwise, if the destination has a ``local address part'' of INADDR_ANY, or if the destination is the sym- bolic name of a network, then the route is assumed to be to a network; otherwise, it is presumed to be a route to a host. For example, 128.32 is interpreted as -host; 128.32.130 is in- terpreted as -host; -net 128.32 is interpreted as; and -net 128.32.130 is interpreted as The keyword default can be used as the destination to set up a default route to a smart gateway. If no other routes match, this default route will be used as a last resort. If the destination is directly reachable via an interface requiring no intermediary system to act as a gateway, the -interface modifier should be specified; the gateway given is the address of this host on the common network, indicating the interface to be used for transmission. The optional modifiers -xns, -osi, -atalk, and -link specify that all subsequent addresses are in the XNS, OSI, or AppleTalk address families, or are specified as link-level addresses, and the names must be numeric specifications rather than symbolic names. The optional -netmask qualifier is intended to achieve the effect of an OSI ESIS redirect with the netmask option, or to manually add subnet routes with netmasks different from that of the implied network interface (as would otherwise be communicated using the OSPF or ISIS routing proto- cols). One specifies an additional ensuing address parameter (to be in- terpreted as a network mask). The implicit network mask generated in the AF_INET case can be overridden by making sure this option follows the destination parameter. -prefixlen is also available for similar purpose, in IPv4 and IPv6 case. Routes have associated flags which influence operation of the protocols when sending to destinations matched by the routes. These flags may be set (or sometimes cleared) by indicating the following corresponding mod- ifiers: -cloning RTF_CLONING - generates a new route on use -cloned RTF_CLONED - cloned route generated by RTF_CLONING -xresolve RTF_XRESOLVE - emit mesg on use (for external lookup) -iface ~RTF_GATEWAY - destination is directly reachable -static RTF_STATIC - manually added route -nostatic ~RTF_STATIC - pretend route added by kernel or daemon -reject RTF_REJECT - emit an ICMP unreachable when matched -blackhole RTF_BLACKHOLE - silently discard pkts (during updates) -proto1 RTF_PROTO1 - set protocol specific routing flag #1 -proto2 RTF_PROTO2 - set protocol specific routing flag #2 -llinfo RTF_LLINFO - validly translates proto addr to link addr The optional modifiers -rtt, -rttvar, -sendpipe, -recvpipe, -mtu, -hopcount, -expire, and -ssthresh provide initial values to quantities maintained in the routing entry by transport level protocols, such as TCP or TP4. These may be individually locked by preceding each such modifier to be locked by the -lock meta-modifier, or one can specify that all en- suing metrics may be locked by the -lockrest meta-modifier. In a change or add command where the destination and gateway are not suf- ficient to specify the route (as in the ISO case where several interfaces may have the same address), the -ifp or -ifa modifiers may be used to de- termine the interface or interface address. All symbolic names specified for a destination or gateway are looked up first as a host name using gethostbyname(3). If this lookup fails, getnetbyname(3) is then used to interpret the name as that of a network. route uses a routing socket and the new message types RTM_ADD, RTM_DELETE, RTM_GET, and RTM_CHANGE. As such, only the super-user may modify the routing tables.
The route utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs. This includes the use of the get command to look up a route that is incom- plete.
This sets the default route to route add default This shows all routes, without DNS resolution (this is useful if the DNS is not available): route -n show To install a static route through to reach the network, use this: route add -net -netmask
add [host | network ] %s: gateway %s flags %x The specified route is being added to the tables. The values printed are from the routing table entry supplied in the ioctl(2) call. If the gateway address used was not the primary address of the gateway (the first one returned by gethostbyname(3)), the gateway address is printed numerically as well as symbolically. delete [ host | network ] %s: gateway %s flags %x As above, but when deleting an entry. %s %s done When the flush command is specified, each routing table entry deleted is indicated with a message of this form. Network is unreachable An attempt to add a route failed because the gateway listed was not on a directly-connected network. The next-hop gateway must be given. not in table A delete operation was attempted for an entry which wasn't pre- sent in the tables. routing table overflow An add operation was attempted, but the system was low on re- sources and was unable to allocate memory to create the new en- try. Permission denied The attempted operation is privileged. Only root may modify the routing tables. These privileges are enforced by the kernel.
esis(4), netintro(4), route(4), routed(8), sysctl(8)
The route command appeared in 4.2BSD. IPv6 support was added by WIDE/KAME project.
The first paragraph may have slightly exaggerated routed(8)'s abilities. Some uses of the -ifa or -ifp modifiers with the add command will incor- rectly fail with a ``Network is unreachable'' message if there is no de- fault route. See case RTM_ADD in sys/net/rtsock.c:route_output for de- tails. NetBSD 1.6.2 October 23, 1998 4
Powered by man-cgi (2024-03-20). Maintained for NetBSD by Kimmo Suominen. Based on man-cgi by Panagiotis Christias.